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Al 



MOIRS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



P^. 



AL REPORTS OX THE MINERAL 
i>RESOURCES OF GREAT BRITAIN. 



VOL. IX.-IROX ORES (contd.). SUNDRY UNBEDDED ORES 
OF DURHAM, EAST CUMBERLAND, NORTH WALES, 
DERBYSHIRE, THE ISLE OF MAN, BRISTOL DISTRICT 
AND SOMERSET, DEVON AND CORNWALL 

By T. C. CANTRILL, B.Sc, R. L. SHERLOCK, D.Sc, 
AND HENRY DEWEY. 



PUBLISHED BV OKDEK OF THE LORDS COMMISSIOITBIIS OF HIS MAJESTY'S TREASLRT. 




^^'^. 




^ 



LONDON : 

PRINTED UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF HIS MAJESTY'S 

STATIONERY OFFICE. 

p- -T\c; TRUMnorr and son, Ltd., Canng.v Strkk- '''' 4. 



And to be purchased from 

E. STANFORD, Ltd., 12, 13 and 14, Long Acre, Londo.v, W.C. 2; 

W. ,\- A. K. JOHNSTON, Ltd., 2, St. Andrew Square, Edinburgh ; 

HODGES, FIGGIS & Co., Ltd., Grafton Street, Dublin. 

I roiii any AMeut for the sale of Onluanco Survey Maps, or through anv Bookselle 
or from the D.rector-Geuoral. Onhiaivce .m,rvov Office. SoSht^^nrnn 



ce, Southampton. 



1919. 
Vrice 3*'. Qd. Net. 




GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF ENGLAND AND WALES, AND 
. MUSEUM OF PRACTICAL GEOLOGY. 

(Obfice : 28, Jebmyn Stbekt, London, S.W. 1.) 



LIST OF PUBLICATIONS. 

The publications include Maps, Memoirs, Museum Catalogues, Catalogue of Photographs, Guides, &c. 

A complete list can be obtained from the Ordnance Survey Office, Southampton, price 6d. The Maps and 
Memoirs can be obtained from the Ordnance Survey, or from Agents. Museum Catalogues, Guides, &c., are 
«old at the Museum. 

INDEX HAP OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

On the scale of l-25th inch to the mile fl to 1584000). 
Price— Coloured, 2s., Uncoloured, 1«. 



Sheet. 



— 

6 — 

6 — 

2 6 — 



QUARTER-INCH HAP OF ENGLAND AND 

Solid. Drift. 
s. d. s. d. 

TITLE SHEET 2 

1 with 2. (ALNWICK, BERWICK, &c.) 2 

3. (CARLISLE and ISLE OF MAN) ... 2 

4. (NEWCASTLE, STOCKTON, &c.) ... 
5 with 6. (LANCASTER and ISLE OF 

MAN) 

7. (MANCHESTER, LEEDS. &c.) ... 

8. (FLAMBORO' HEAD and GRIMSBY) 
9 with 10. (HOLYHEAD, SHREWS- 
BURY, &c.) 

11. (STAFFORD, DERBY, LINCOLN, 

&c.) 

12. (LOUTH and YARMOUTH) 
. 13 with part of 17. (FISHGUARD, MIL- 
FORD) 



2 



2 6 — 



2 6 



2 6 



WALES (i-inch to the mile, or 1 to 253440). 

Sheet. 



14. (ABERYSTWYTH, HEREFORD).. 

15. (BIRMINGHAM. OXFORD^ 

16. (CAMBRIDGE, IPSWICH) 

18. (BRISTOL, CARDIFF. &c.) 

19. (BATH, GUILDFORD, SOUTH- 

AMPTON) 

20 with 24. (LONDON, DOVER, and 

BRIGHTON) 

21 with 25. (FALMOUTH with ISLES 

OF SCILLY) 

22. (.PLYMOUTH and LYME REGIS)... 

23. (BOURNEMOUTH to SELSEY 

BILL) 

INDEX to COLOURS and SYMBOLS ... 



SoUd. 


Drift. 


t. 


d. 


«. d. 


2 


6 





2 


6 





2 


6 


3 6 


2 


6 


— 



2 « — 



6 2 6 



ONE-INCH HAP, NEW SERIES (1 inch to the mile, or 1 to 63360) WITH ACCOHPANYING HEHOIRS. 

These are published in either a "Solid" or a "Drift" Edition, or in both. The majority of them are 
accompanied by Explaratory Memoirs. New Series Sheets 1 to 73 correspond to the Quarter Sheets of the Old 
Series Map 91 to 110. Some of these are now coloured-printed, and are given in the table below; the rest aire 
still issued as sheets of the Old Series Map. 



33. STOCKTON ... 

34. GUISBROUGH 

35 and 44. SCALBY AND 

WHITBY 

42. NORTHALLERTON 

43. EGTON 

52. RIPON and THIRSK ... 

53. PICKERING 

54. SCARBOROUGH ... 

55. FLAMBOROUGH ... 

62. HARROGATE 

63. YORK 

64. DRIFFIELD 

65. BRIDLINGTON ... 

71. SELBY 

72. BEVERLEY... 

73. IIORN.SEA ... 
100. SUEFUhLD ' . 
110. MACCLESFIELD, CON- 

GLETON 

112. CHESTERFIELD 

113. OLLEiri'ON ... 
123. STOKE-UPON-TUENT 

125. DERBY and WIRKS- 

WORTH ... 

126. NEW.VKK and NOTTING- 

HAM 
• 141. LOUGHBOROUGH and 

BURTON ... 
142. MELTON ilOWBRAY 
165. A T H E R S T N E and 

CHARNWOOD 
J.56. LEICE.STEE ... 
187. HUNTI.NGDON 
203. BEDFORD . 

227. MILFORU .. 

228. HAVtRFOltDWEST 

229. C ABM ART HEN 

230. AMMANFORD 

!31. MEKTHYK TYDF^IL 
232. ABERGAVENNY 
J46. WEST GOWER 

247. SWANSEA ... 

248. PONTYPRIDD 

249. NEWPORT (Mon.) 

254. HENLEY-ON-THAMES "■ 
261-2. BRIDGEND 

263. CARDIFF .. 

267. HUNGERFORDandNEwl 
BURY 

1J68. READING .. 

269. WIND.SOR . . 

282. DEVIZES 

283. ANDOVER 

284. BASINGSTOKE 

295, TAUNTON and BRIDG- 
WATER ... 



Price of 


Map. 


Solid. 


Drift 


. Memoir. 


s. d. 




d. s. d. 


5 3 




6 — 


5 3 




6 1 6 







6 2 6 


9 




6 1 6 


10 6 




6 1 6 


9 9 




6 with 42 


9 




6 I 


6 9 
1 6 




6i ^ c 
6| ^ fi 


8 3 




6 2 6 


9 9 




6 16 


4 6 




6 9 


1 6 




6 1 


3 9 




6 16 


5 3 




6 — 


— 




6 


— 




6 with 112 







6 2 6 


— 




6 SO 


— 




6 2 


I G 




6 1 6 



— 


1 


6 


2 





— 


I 


6 


2 


3 


11 3 


1 


6 


2 





8 3 


1 


6 


3 





_ 


6 





_ 


_ 


— 


9 


9 


_ 


_ 


— 


- 


- 


2 


6 


— 


- 


- 


3 


6 


1 6 




6 


2 





1 6 




6 


2 


6 


1 6 




6 


1 


6 


1 6 




6 


2 





1 6 




6 





8 


I 6 




6 


2 


6 


I 6 




6 


3 


6 


1 6 




6 


1 


i 


— 




6 


2 





1 6 




6 


1 


6 


1 6 




6 


2 










6 


2 


6 


6 9 




6 


1 


6 


— 


- 


- 


2 


6 


— 




6 


1 





— 




6 


1 


6 


— 




6 


2 






2 



298. SALISBURY 

299. WINCHESTER 

300. AXRESFORD 

311. WELLINGTON and 

CHARD 

314. RINGWOOD 

315. SOUTHAMPTON 

316. HAVANT 

317. CHICHESTER 

325. EXETER 

326 and 340. SIDMOUTH and 

LYME REGIS 

328. DORCHESTER 

329. BOURNEMOUTH 

330. NEW FOREST (pts.) I. OF 

WIGHT (pts.) 

331. PORTSMOUTH and I. CF 

WIGHT (pt.) 

332. BOGNOR 

333. WORTHING and ROT- 

TINGDEAN 

334. NEWHAVEN and EAST- 

BOURNE 

3S5. TREVOSE HEAD 

336. CAMELFORD 

337. TAVISTOCK and LATTN- 

CESTON 

338. DARTMOOR 

3.39. NEWTON ABBOT 

341. WEST FLEET 

342. PORTLAND and WEY- 

MOUTH 

343. SWANAGE 

346. NEWQUAY 

347. BODMIN and ST. AUS- 

TELL 

348. PLYMOUTH and LIS- 

KEARD 

349. IV'Y^BRIDGE 

350. TORQUAY 

351 and 358. LAND'S END 

DI.STRICT 

352. FALMOUTH and TRURO 

353. MEVAGISSEY 

355. KINGSBRIDGE 

356. START POINT 

357 and 3G0. ISLES OF SCILLY' 

359. LIZARD 

LONDON (4 Sheets), each 
ISLE OF MAN (Sheets 36, 45, 

, 46. 5Gand57) 

ISLE OF WIGHT (Special 

Sheet) 

NOTTINGHAM (Special Sheet) — 
OXFORD (Special Sheet) 



Price of Map. 

Solid. Drift. Memoir. 

*. d. s. d. $. d. 

— 16 13 

— 16 16 

— 16 2 


- 


1 6 
1 6 
1 6 
1 6 
1 6 
1 6 


I 3 
1 
1 6 
1 9 

1 

2 


5 3 


I 6 
I 6 
1 6 


I 6 

1 

2 


7 6 


1 6 


- 


5 3 

2 


1 6 
1 6 


6 


- 


1 6 


- 


— 


1 6 
1 61 

1 cj- 


6 
2 3 


- 


1 6 
I 6 
1 6 
1 6j 


3 

2 3 

3 


- 


1 e) 

1 6 


10 6 
3 


- 


1 6 


4 


— 


I 6 
1 6 
1 6 


1 6 
3 

2 


- 


2 6 
1 6 
1 fc 
1 6) 
1 6( 
1 6 
1 6 
1 6 


2 6 
7 6 
1 6 

1 6 

1 
5 
1 


11 


2 6 


12 


— 


2 6 
1 6 
1 6 


8 e 
2 
2 3 



MEMOIRS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



SPECIAL PEPORTS OJS^ THE MINERAL 
RESOULOES OF GREAT BRITAIN 



VOL. IX.-IRON ORES icontd.). SUNDRY UNBEDDED ORES 
OF DURHAM, EAST CUMBERLAND, NORTH WALES, 
DERBYSHIRE, THE ISLE OF MAN, BRISTOL DISTRICT 
AND SOMERSET, DEVON AND CORNWALL. 

By T. C. CANTRILL, B.Sc, R. L. SHERLOCK, D.Sc, 
AND HENRY DEWEY. 



tPUBLISHED BY ORDER OF THE LORDS COMMISSIO^iERS OF HIS MAJESTY'S TREASCRT. 





LONDON: 
PRINTED UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF HIS MAJESTY'S 

STATIONERY OFFICE. 
By JAS. TRUSCO IT and SON, Ltd., Gannon Street, E.G. 4. 



And to be purchased from 

E. STANFORD, Ltd., 12, 13 and 14, Long Acre, London, W.G. 2; 

W. ct A. K. JOHNSTON, Ltd., 2, St. Andrew Square, Edinbl'rgh ; 

HODGES, FIGGIS & Co^, Ltd., Grakton Street, Dublin. 

From any Asent for the sale of Ordnance Survey Map.s, or through any Bookseller 
or from the D. rector-General. Ordnance Survey Office, SoVithampton 



1919. 
Price 3s. 6d. Net. 



Ill 



PREFACE 



Tho initiation of a series of volumes descriptive of the Iron Ores of Great 
Britain is outlined in the Preface to the first of those volumes to be published, 
namely, that in which the hsematites of the North-West of England are dealt 
with (Special Reports on the Mineral Resources of Great Britain, vol. viii). 

The present volume, in continuation of the general subject, is devoted to an 
account of a number of unbedded ores, including limonites, spathic and magnetic 
ores, with some scattered hsematites of small commercial importance. Some of 
the ores described have been worked for other purposes than the production of 
iron. 

The majority of the mines described are inactive and some have been long 
abandoned. The information relating to these has been assembled from previous 
Memoirs of the Geological Survey and from other publications. Such field-work 
as was necessary for the investigation of mines now in operation, or the reopening 
of which appeared possible, was carried out in 1917. The mines of the County of 
Durham and of East Cumberland were visited by Dr. R. L. Sherlock, those of 
North Wales and Somerset by Mr. T. C. Cantrill and Dr. Sherlock, those of South 
Devon and Cornwall by Mr. H. Dewey. Each officer supplies an account of the 
mines visited by himself. 

A. SXRAHAN, 

Director. 
Geological Survey Office, 

28, Jermyn Street, London, S.W. 1, 

I8//< December, 1918. 



IV 







CONTENTS 



Page 

Y THE DiKECTOR iii 



Chapter I. — Introduction 



„ II. — Co. Durham and East Cumberland. — Weardale, Co. 
Durham : General Account. Details of the Mines. 
Teesdale. Alston District, Cumberland: General 
Account. Details of the Veins ... ... ... ... 4 

„ III. — North Wales, Derbyshire, and the Isle of Man. — 
North Wales : General Account. Details of the Mines. 
Derbyshire. The Isle of Man 15 

,, IV. — Bristol District, West Somerset and North Devon. — ■ 
Bristol District : General Account. Details of the 
]\Iines. West Somer-set and North Devon : Mine- 
head District, Brendon Hills. Eisen Hill, Exmoor 
District. North Molton District, Barnstaple District, 
Ilfracombe District ... ... ... ... ... 28 

,, V. — South Devon and Cornwall. — South Devon : General 
Account. Details of the Mines. Other South Devon 
Mines. Cornwall : General Account. Details of the 
Mines. Newquay District, Wade bridge and St. Au-stell 
District, Truro and HeLston District. Smaller Mines ... 46 

Index 81 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

Page 

Fig 1. — Map of Iron-mining District, Cwm,^ near Dyserth, Flintshire... 17 

,, 2. — ^Map of Iron-minmg District, Bodfari, Flintshire ... ... 20 

,, 3. — -IVIap of Iron-mining District, Abergele, Denbighshire ... ... 24 

,, 4. — Map of Iron-mining District, Brendon Hills, Somerset 32 

„ 5. — Map of Iron-mining District, Bovey Tracsy, Davon ... ... 51 

„ 6. — Map of Sharkham Point, Brixham, Devon 53 

,, 7. — Map of Iron-mining Districts : Newquay, Wadebridge and 

St. Austell Districts, Cornwall 67 



IRON ORES: 

STJXDRY UXBEDDED ORES 



CHAPTER I 



IXTRODUCTI0N 



This volume deals with some relatively unimportaut sources of 
uubeckled iron-ore, iu various parts of England and Wales 
specified below. The ores occur as irregular bodies, pockets, flats, 
and veins. The table on page 3 shows the districts referred to, 
together with the outputs in tons for the three years preceding 
the war; for purposes of comparison the figures for Cumberland 
and Lancashire also are given. 

In the Carboniferous and Devonian limestones the haematite 
forms flats, pockets, and vein-like masses; in the older Palaeozoic 
rocks of the Isle of Man, and in the Coal Measures of the Bristol 
district {i.e., South Gloucestershire and Xorth Somerset), it occurs 
as true veins; in the Dolomitic Conglomerate (Trias) of the last- 
named district it is present as lenticular masses. In the Devonian 
Slates of West Somerset and North Devon, in the Carboniferous 
Limestone Series of Durham and East Cumberland, and in the 
Granite and KilLis of South Devon and Cornwall, the spathic ore 
odcurs in true veins, though at the surface it has generally 
changed into htematite and limonite. In South Devon and 
Cornwall the specular ores form true veins, and the magnetite 
occurs usually in lenticles associated with basic igneous rocks, 
from which it was probably derived by magmatic segregation. 

The output of hsematite from Xorth Wales, Derbyshire, the Isle 
of Man, and North Somerset, always small, has ))ractically ceased. 
Of the small amount uf haematite raised before the war in South 
Devon, the greater part was used for paint; latterly it has been 
used also as a source of iron. Si)athic vein-ore now takes a very 
small share in the supply of ironstone, and though once of 
importance in the Brendon Hills, Exmoor, and Weardale, it is 
now raised, in small (|uantities only, iu Weardale and Cornwall. 
From Cornwall and from South Devon some magnetite is derived. 

No precise estinuite of the reserves of these ores is pc^ssible. In 
North Wales and North Somerset not more than a few thousand 
tons can be relied on. Future supplies from the Isle of Man are 
wholly speculative, and from Derbyshire are negligible. Of 
spathic ore there are no doul)t considerable reserves in Durliam, 
West Somerset, Devon, and Cornwall. The following table shows 
the reserves in tons so far as can be stated, together with those 
of Cumberland and Lancashire for comparison : — 

(151.) Wt. 37841— 4-2. 500. 9/19. J. T. & S., Ltd., G 14. Sch. 11. 



L'XBEDDED IRON ORES 



Ore. 
Spathic 

Haematite 



Spathic 

Haematite 
Spathic and 
Magnetite 
Haematite 



District. 
. Durham and East 

Cumberland 
. North Wales ... 
Derby.shire 
Isle of Man ... 
Bristol District 
. West Somerset 
North Devon 

* ' Cornwall 
I Devon 



Reserves 

more or less 

developed. 



— A 



Probable additional 
Reserves. 

250,000 
few thousand ? 

J 

None ? 
few thousand 



Say 
250,0001 



and 



and South 



? 



Cumberland 
cashire 



lid Lan- 



45 million. 



500,000 



90 million. 



That the reserves of haematite are sufficient sensibly to modify 
the estimates of British reserves is most improbable, but that some 
«xist is certain. Having regard to all the circumstances, it 
appears necessary to frame an approximate estimate and, in doing 
so, to take into account the productiveness of the mines in the 
closing years of their activities. Accordingly, the estimates are 
founded on the assumption that, in the aggregate, the lodes 
contain a reserve of ore equal to the aggregate output of the last 
10 years, or in some cases the last 20 years, of the mining 
operations. This basis, arbitrary though it is, leads to an estimate 
bearing some relation to the proved productiveness of past years. ^ 

The haematite of North Wales, Derbyshire, North Somerset and 
South Devon has been formed by metasomatic replacement of 
limestone by the action of ferruginous solutions. Though in the 
majority of cases the replacement may be comparable in age and 
character with the replacement of limestone in West Cumberland 
and North Lancashire, this may not be true of the ore found 
in the Carboniferous Basement Beds of the Abergele district of 
North Wales. This ore is not associated with any visible sign 
of a former extension of the Trias, while, on the other hand, it 
is contained in a formation that resembles the Trias in the 
prevalence of iron and in its unconformable relation to all older 
rocks. 

The haematite in the veins among the older Palaeozoic rocks 
of the Isle of Man, and among the Coal Measures of the Bristol 
District, was perhaps formed by the alteration of calcite and 
dolomite veins by ferruginous waters derived from Triassic 
deposits. 

The spathic vein-ore of West Somerset, Devon, and Cornwall 
consists in depth of chalybite ; but near and at the surface this 
has been converted by hydration and oxidation into either 
limonite or haematite, in some cases manganiferous. 

The spathic ore in the veins of Cornwall, Durham, and East 
Cumberland is in some cases associated with fluor-spar and galena, 
and it is probable that heated vapours and solutions played a part 
in its formation. At the surface it becomes converted into 
limonite. 

1 This includes the pisolitic bedded ores of North Wales described in ' Special 
Reports,' vol. xiii. 

« ' Summary of Progress for 1917 ' {Mem. Geol Surv.), 1918, p. 6. 



INTRODUCTIOX 



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CHAPTEE II 
CO. DURHAM AND EAST CUMBERLAND 

By R. L. Sherlock 
Weardale, Co. Durham 

GENERAL ACCOU>'T 

Ironston'e was worked in Weardale at least as early as the 
12tli century, when a lease of an iron mine at Rookhope was 
granted by the Bishop of Durham for making ploughs. The 
modern period of working, however, may be said to have begun 
some time between 1820 and 1840. About 1842 a furnace built 
at Stanhope, a short time before, was bought by Chas. Attwood, 
who afterwards formed the Weardale Iron Company. Develop- 
ment was rapid and the outjjut of ore approached 100,000 tons, 
per annum. 

The first small furnace was erected at Stanhope Dene, but, to 
obviate the necessity of bringing in coal from a distance, furnaces 
were erected at Tow Law, where the company purchased collieries. 
As additional furnaces came into action the local supply of iron- 
stone became insufficient, and about 1851 Cleveland ores were 
brought into the district, and in a short time entirely sujDerseded 
the local ores.^ It appears^ that AVeardale ores began to be worked 
again in 1861, and, according to the Home Office Returns, have 
been worked ever since, but on a very small scale. In 1917 the 
output for the whole of Weardale was about 300 tons weekly. 

Weardale ores have borne a good reputation from early days. 
R. Meade^ records that the ' rider ' ore from the lead veins bears 
a high name for bar iron and has been found well adapted for 
the manufacture of the finer kinds of tough steel used for chains, 
ploughs, and other small articles that use up a small quantity 
of ore. 

The ore occurs in the form of iron carbonate (' spathic ') and 
limonite ('brown haematite'). The percentage of iron varies 
from 30 to as much as 50 or 60, but the average proportion 
in 1917, as given in the Home Office Returns, was 37 per cent. 
The following analyses (p. 5) show their average composition: — 

^ I. L. Bell, ' On the Manufacture of Iron in connexion with the Northumber- 
land and Durham Coalfield,' Rep. Brit. Assoc, for 1863 (1864), p. 740. 

2 R. Meade, ' Coal and Iron Industries of the United Kingdom,' Lond., 1882^ 
p. 334. 

3 Jfeid. 



CO. DrRHAM AND EAST CUMBERLAND 





Analyses of 1 


Veardale Iron- 


ores. 










1. 11. , 111. 

1 1 


IV. 


V. 


I VI. 


VII. VIII. 


Peroxide of iron 


49-50 1 — \ 0-81 


7111 










Protoxide of iron 


10-77 


49-471 


49-77 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Protoxide of 


















manganese ... 


3 06 


2-42 


1-93 


6-60 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Alumina 


0-43 1 trace. 


— 


0-40 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Lime 


5-68 3-47 


3-96 


0-56 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Magnesia 


1-20 3-15 


2-83 


1-90 


— 


— 


— 


iffe 


Silica 


0-29 1-202 


— , 




8-59 


9-25 


9-90 


Carbonic acid 


14-49 37-713 


37-20 


013 


— 


— 




Phosphoric acid 


001 1 trace. 


trace. 


0-22 


— 


— 




Phosphorus 


— 


— 


— 


— 


0-014 


0-15^ 


0-O23 0026. 


Sulphuric acid 


trace. 


trace. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— — 


Sulphur 




— 


004 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Bisulphide of iron 


0-03 


0-08 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Water, hygroscopic ... 


1-81 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Water in combination.. 


6-63 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— — 


Water 


— 


— 


0-30 


12-40 


7-08 


— 


11-95 — 


Organic matter 


trace. 


trace. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Calcium carbonate ... 


— 


— 


— 


— 


5-85 


6-30 


0-44 


0-50 


Insoluble residue 


6-90 3-774 


312 


6-328 


— 


— 


— ' — 




100-80 101-27 


99-96 


99-64 








In.soluble residue : — 










Silica 


6-35 3-73 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— — 


Alumina 


0-41 0-065 — 


— 


— 


— 


— — 


Peroxide of iron ... 


007 — 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— — 


Lime 


0-01 : — 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— — 


Magnesia 


001 : — 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— — 


Potash 


005 1 — 










— — 




6-90 


3-79 




Total iron in ore 


43-02 38-56 1 38 95 


49-78 


37-91 


40-80 


42-53 48-30 



Notes. — 1 Mean of five determinations. * With trace of iron. 

2 Another determination gave 062. * Si 40, Al 1-97. 

3 Mean of two determinations. ^ 15 ? 
* Another determination gave 3-89. 

I. — J. Spiller in 'Iron Ores of Great Britain ' (Mem. Geol. Surv.), 1856, p. 57. 
West Level. An altered spathose ore, in which the greater part of 
the carbonate ha<i been convertetl into hydrated peroxide. 
II. — A. Dick in do., p. 59. Rispey. Spathose ore ; easily scratched by 
the file. No metal ppt. by HjS from the HCl solution of 1,000 
grains of ore. 
III. — Dr. Percy inl. L. B"l!, ' On the Mauifacture of Iron in connexion with 
the Northunibi-rland and Durham Coalfield.' Rep. Brit. Assoc, for 
1863 (1864), p. 756. Spathose ore from Weardale. 
IV. — Same authority as III. Hydrated peroxide from Weardale. A traoa 

of protoxide of copper. 
V. — Weardcale Steel, Coal and Coke Co., Ltd., Carricks Mine, raw ore. 
VI.— ,, ., „ „ dry ore. 

VII. — ,, ,, „ Sunnybrow Mine, raw ore. 

VIII. — ,, ,, „ ,, dry ore. 

The white carbonate of iron is more valuable than the brown 
haematite. The compusitiou of the carbonate is shown by the. 



Raw. 


Dry. 


41-23 .. 


41-30 


0-90 .. 


0-90 


016 .. 


— 



v6 UNBEDDED IRON ORES 

following partial analyses of mineral from Carricks Mine in 
1915: — 

Fe 

SiOa 

HjO 

The ironstone occurs in veins and flats in the upper part of 
the Carboniferous Limestone Series, and is confined to the 
limestone-beds. The following section, at Burtree Pasture Mine, 
Level Head Engine Shaft, a little more than a mile north of 
Wear Head, is summarised from the detailed section published 
on Vertical Sections Sheet 63 {Geol. Surv.). It may be taken 
as illustrative of the Weardale succession between the Little and 
Tyne-Bottom Limestones: — 

Ft. 

Little Limestone 9 

Strata 52 

Great Limestone ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 67 

Strata 83 

Four Fathom Limestone 18 

Strata 89 

Three Yard Limestone 10 

Strata 48 

Five Yard Limestone ... ... ... ... ... ... 15 

Strata 63 

i Limestone ... 6 ft. 9 ins. ) 
Plate ... 3 ft. 3 ins. [ 33 

Limestone ... 23 ft, ins. j 

Strata 67 

Tyne-Bottom Limestone ... ... ... ... ... 3^ 

Where a vein cuts strata other than limestone the iron-ore fails 
altogether, or is reduced to a mere streak of perhaps an inch 
in width. Fluorspar and galena, however, which sometimes 
occur in the same veins as the ironstone, are not entirely con- 
fined to the limestones. Galena is sometimes found in the midst 
of ironstone and, very rarely, forms strings in it, an inch or 
two in thickness. On an old mine-plan, iron, fluor and lead are 
recorded as occurring together, but this association has not been 
observed in any of the veins now being worked. The name 
* rider ' ore has been given to ironstone found in lead-bearing 
veins as ribs on one or both sides of the galena.^ 

Ironstone appears or fails unexpectedly. Failure is due to the 
vein being nipped out by country-rock, or occasionally to its being 
filled up with lumps of country-rock to the exclusion of ore. 
Yeins that have failed are not usually followed, but some have 
been proved to become productive again. 

In Weardale the iron-ore occurs generally in the Great Lime- 
stone, but has been found also in the Four Fathom Limestone, 
and, as reported, in still lower bands. It occupies fissures, some 
of which are evidently faults, while others are joints widened 
by the solvent action of water, like the ' rakes ' of Derbyshire.^ 

1 J. D. KendaU, ' Iron Ores of Great Britain,' 1893, p. 142. 

2 ' Geo], of the Carboniferous Limestone, Yoredale Rocks, and Millstone Grit 
^f N. Derbyshire.' {Mem. Geol Surv.), ed. 2, 1887, p. 121. 



CO. DUUIiAM. A>D EAST CLilUKULAMJ i 

According to J. D. Keudall/ the presence of ' rider ' ore iu 
a vein depends upon the character of the walls. For example, 
if one be limestone and the other sandstoncj faulted into 
apposition, the workable rider accompanies the limestone-wall 
only. If both walls are of limestone, and the vein carries lead, 
there are usually two ribs of rider, one on each wall, the galena 
being between them ; or the rider may extend from wall to wall in 
the absence of lead, as was the case on the Manor House Vein 
in the Scar Limestone, near Alston Station. 

' Flats ' are masses of ore projecting from the vein into 
the limestones for several feet or yards and having usually the 
same inclination as the limestone beds. In the Great, and aUi 
in the Scar Limestone, Kendall" recognises three levels in which 
the vein usually 'fiats,' and which are known as the upper, 
middle and lower flats. As a rule fiats are more important than 
tiie veins, but Lowe's Vein, Carricks Mine (p. 8) is ex<'eptionally 
wide and can be worked profitably apart from them. 

That the ore has been formed by metusomatic action on the 
limestone admits of little doubt. Generally it graduates into 
limestone, but at Carricks Mine there is said to be frequently a 
thin layer of clayey material, containing about 40 per cent, of 
iron, between the two. 

Flats have various shapes; they may be either wedge-shaped 
or short and thick. Sometimes they extend along a cross-vein, 
which may cut another main vein. At the intersection of veins 
there is sometimes a widening of the ore-body. In Weardale, 
veins are generally too narrow for profitable working apart from 
flats. 

Usually the workable height in the vein is only about 20 ft., 
but the ore may be present throughout the whole thickness of 
the Great Limestone, which in "Weardale varies from 53 to 67 ft. 
The ore-body ends above and below in various ways. It may abut 
sharply against the shale overlying the limestone, or against 
the soft sandstone ('tuft') that usually underlies it, or it may 
rapidly narrow to a mere streak as the limestone boundary is 
approached. The usual height of a flat in the same district is 
about 20 ft., although some are as high as 32 ft. 

In the early issues of the Mineral Statistics the output of 
Weardale is noi separated from that of neighl)ouriiig areas. In 
1861 the output was 91,000 tons and in 1862 it was 124,750 tons, 
according tf> Bell.'' From 1869 onwards statistics* are available 
xiud are as follow: — 



I ons. 

1869 ... :}0.(MM» 

1870 ... 1(M».:J22 

1871 ... 8(>.:U1) 

1872 ... <l7.0.-,;j 

1873 ... 99,393 



1874 
187") 
187«) 
1877 
1878 



Tons. 




8r).491 


1879 


:U,828 


1880 


24.202 


1881 


51.:J44 


1882 


35,619 


1883 



Tous. 
16,679 
41.358 
70.771 
82.600 
48.109 



» ' Iron Ort« of Great Britain,' 1893, p. 142. 

* Loc. cit. 

' ' On the Manufacture of Iron in connexion with the Northumberland and 
Durham Coalfield.' Rep. liril. Assoc, 1863, p. 758. 

* ' Mijieral Statistics of the United Kingdom ' {Mem. Oeol. Sun:), annually to 
1881. After 1881 replaced hy 'Mines and Quarries: General Report with 
jStatistics ' (Home Office, Parliamentary Papers), ainiually. 



UNBEDDED IRON OllES 





Tons. 




1884 


48,372 


1895 


1885 


39,777 


1896 


1886 


1,759 


1897 


1887 


2,506 


1898 


1888 


47.203 


1899 


1889 


3,991 


1900 


1890 


11,488 


1901 


1891 


7,715 


1902 


1892 


9,275 


1903 


1893 


Nil. 


1904 


1894 


2,679 


1905 



Ton.«. 




Tons. 


19.064 


1906 


.. 12,961 


19,277 


1907 


.. 13,791 


16.852 


1908 


.. 12,5»t 


20,868 


1909 


.. 10,471 


16,960 


1910 


.. Nil. 


19,046 


1911 


3,955 


19,503 


1912 


3,0.33 


21,121 


1913 


36 


] 3.468 


1914 


1.776 


21.146 


1915 


.. 10,729 


12,693 


1916 


.. 13,170 



DETAILS OF THE MINES 

Carricks Mine 
The Weardale Steel, Coal and Coke Company, Limited, Spennymoor. 

A day-level, situated at Cold Kuuckles, half a mile south-west 
of Ireshopeburn. Nearest railway-stations : Wearhead, and 
St. John's ChajDel (N.E.R., Wear Valley Branch), each about 
1^ miles distant. 

Ordnance and Geological Maps: One-inch New Ser., 25 (Old 
Ser., 102 N.E.); six-inch Durham, 22 S.E. and 30 N.E. Lat. 
54° 44' 10". Long. 2° 12' 55". 

The mine was originally worSed for lead and was then called 
Craigs Level. It was taken over by the present owners about 
1883. 

Geological Conditions 

The mine-entrance is situated on the outcrop of the Great 
Limestone, and the level is driven south-eastward. The dip of 
the limestone is towards the north-west at an angle slightly greater 
than that of the day-level. The iron-ore is found in several veins 
trending south-west and north-east. The day-level cuts the 
veins in succession at right-angles, but, owing to the slightly 
higher dip of the strata, falls a little below the limestone after 
leaving the entrance, and at Lowe's Yein is some 25 ft. below 
it. The veins taken in the order in which they are cut by the 
level are: Groove Heads Vein, unworked; Wilson's and Carr's 
Veins, both unproved; a nameless vein that passes through 
Rowantree A Mine and is not worked; LoAve's, Dawson's, 
Madison's and Ear Veins, the last standing idle at the time 
(1917). Lowe's, Dawson's and Madison's Veins were the only 
ones being worked in July, 1917. 

Lowe's Vein has an average width of 14 ft. ; the other two 
of from 3 to 10 or 12 ft. All the veins are faults with down- 
throws to the north of 10 ft. or a little more. Cross- veins have 
a small downthrow on the east side. 

The ore filling the veins is arranged in horizontal bands. 
Layers of hard crystalline and soft material alternate, the latter 
sometimes containing geodes. It is said that the ' posts ' 
(individual bands) of the Great Limestone, which are constant 
over a wide area, can be recognised in the ironstone, on the 
evidence of a correspondence in thickness. It is stated also that, 
the posts in the ironstone lie a little below the corresponding posts. 



CO. DURHAM AXD EAST CUMBERLAXD 9 

in tlie adjacent limestone, indicating that the ironstone occupies 
narrow fault-troughs. The dip of the limestone sags slightly 
towards each vein. 

Galena occurs in any part of the ironstone and needs to be 
picked out, the lead approximately paying for the expense of 
picking. A concentric structure is often seen in the ironstone 
and may occur in any part of the vein. There are also small 
cavities that may contain spar. 

When the vein leaves the Great Limestono. only a parting 
of ferruginous material is seen, but the vein may open out again 
in another limestone and may then contain galena or fluorspar. ^ 

Mining Details 

Access to the mine is gained by a day-level, which is about 
6 ft. high and from 3^ to o ft. wide. It extends to a total length 
of about Ij miles, but beyond Far Vein is not ventilated. It 
slopes at about 1 iu lOU towards the entrance. Where it cuts 
the veins, ' rises ' are put up into the ore-body in the Great 
Limestone above. Main levels are then developed in the veins 
at right-angles to the adit, but of course above it. The width 
of a level depends upon that of the vein it is in, and may be 
10 ft., but never more than 12 ft. on account of difficulty in 
timbering. The height of the levels is 20 ft. ; if the ore should 
have a greater vertical extension than this, another level would 
be made. Ore is thrown down the ' rise ' into tubs in the day-level. 
Timber is used only tor the roofs, and part of it is recovered; 
but by the time the men are retreating it may be 30 or more 
years old. 

The ore is got by overhand stoping, and blasting is necessary. 
More or less horizontal ' jointing ' in the ore causes the stopes 
to vary in height. Tliese ' joints ' have been mentioned above as 
corresponding to stiatification in the country-rock, according to 
local belief. Unless a fall occurs, stopes are left empty. The 
veins are not wide enough to need pillars. 

AVhen a flat is found, a main level is run into it at right 
angles to that in the vein, and is continued until the end of 
the flat is reached, when the level is turned through a right-angle 
and continued parallel to the vein until country-rock is again 
met with. Another right-angled turn brings the level back to 
the vein. The extent of the flat being thus marked out, the ore 
is got, commencing with the part farthest from the vein. 

The day-level takes all the water and this is not excessive. 
Lowe's vein was found to be perfectly dry in the working-places. 
There is practically no waste material in the ore. The maximum 
of impurities is 4 to 5 per cent. 

The output of brown haematite in July, 1917, was about 
1,500 tons a month and could be increased by extra labour. In 
1916 some 300 tons of vein-stuff yielded about 7 per cent, of 
galena. Lead is sporadic in its occurrence. 

The terminations of the veins have not been ascertained. In 
the case of Loire's Vein, working extends about 154 yards 
■eastwards from the ' rise ' by which it is reached from the day- 
level, and in the opposite direction for about 82 yards; but of 
this latter section about 30 yards is in limestone that suddenly 



10 UNBEDDED IRON ORES 

replaces the ore. The ironstone comes in again beyond this section 
with equal suddenness. In the eastern part of the vein a cross- 
vein has been followed for a few yards, when it is cut off by a 
vein of ore parallel to the main one. 

The Groove Heads Vein may have been worked out west of 
the day-level; towards the east the easterly dip carries it below 
water-level. 

Daivson's Vein has been worked out east of the day-level. West 
of the level, pillars in the flats are standing ready for retreating, 
but it is now hoped to go still farther west before removing them. 

Madison's Vein is worked on the east side of the day-level 
and in north and south cross-veins on the west side. It is intended 
to explore the vein towards the west, but at present it is poor 
in that direction. 

The Far Vein has been worked for a considerable distance, but 
is at present standing idle owing to shortage of labour. 

Hope Level 
The Weardale Steel, Coal and Coke Company, Limited, Spennymoor 

A day-level, situated at Ashes House, half a mile north-west 
of Stanhope Church. Nearest passenger-station : tStanhope 
(N.E.E.). For goods traffic: Stanhope Kiln Mineral Siding, on 
the mineral railway that joins the North Eastern System at Burn 
Hill Station and connects by an incline with the North Eastern 
Railway in Weardale. 

Ordnance and Geological Maps: One-inch New Ser., 26 (Old 
Ser., 103 N.W.j; six-mch Durham, 24 N.W. and S.W. Lat. 
54° 45' 9". Long. 2" 0' 52". 

Hope Level has been described in the Memoir on Fluorspar,^ 
but the information here given is later than that account. The 
level is being explored for iron, the expenses being covered by 
the fluorspar obtained. The mine is known to have been worked 
in 1855, and there is information of extensive flats having been 
found and of iron-ore being left when the' mine was abandoned 
owing to trouble with water and foreign competition. 

The day-level was driven in a north-eastward direction to the 
Red or Crawley Vein. The vein is a fault with a downthrow 
northwards of about 17 ft. 

Exploration is carried out by surface-trenches, boreholes and 
drifts. At present (July, 1917) work is being done from the 
point where the level cuts the vein in the Four Fathom Limestone. 
After proceeding one or two hundred yards a rise is being put 
up to unwater the Great Limestone, in which iron-ore is exjiected 
to be found. 

SuNNYBROW' Mine 
The Weardale Steel, Coal and Coke Company, Limited, Spennymoor 
Situated about 150 yards south-west of Sunny Side,^ three- 
quarters of a mile north-west of St. John's Chapel. 

^ ' Special Reports on the Mmera! Resources of Great Britain.' {Mem. Geol. 
Surv.), vol. iv, ed. 2, 1917, p. 18. 

^ Not the ' Sunny Side ' and ' Sunny Brow ' 700 yds. X. of St. John's Chap.^j. 



CO. DURHAM AND EAST CUMBERLAND JlE 

Ordnance and Geological Maps: One-inch New Ser., 25 (Old 
Ser., 102 N.E.J; six-inch Durham, 23 S.W. Lat. 54° 44' 43". 
Long. 2" 11' 25". 

The ironstone lies in the Great Limestone. The present output 
of brown hgematite (July, 1917) is about 100-150 tons monthly. 
The ore is carted to AVearhead Station, \\ miles distant. 

In addition to the mines described above, there are in Weardale 
a number of small mines and quarries that have been worked in 
the past for ironstone, such as Rowantree A, Rowantree B, and 
the Far Cut, in six-inch map Durham 22 S.E. ; Brandon Walls, 
Bog House, and Hanging Wells, in 23 X.E.; and Slit Pasturif, 
West lligg, Rigg, Heights, and Level Gate, in 23 S.W. 

Teesdale 

The Home Office Statistics give the following outputs of iron- 
ore in Teesdale: — 

1882 Sraisgil], 1, Of )0 tons; Ettersgil], 126 tons. 

1883 „ 639 tons; ., 1,.500 tonsi. 

1884 „ 500 tons. 

Both localities are in Co. Durham, in the parish of Middleton, 
and the ore is described as spathose ore and siliceous haematite. 
Snaisgill House is situated a mile north of Middleton (Xew Series 
one-inch Sheet 31); Ettersgill Common is 3^ miles south of St. 
John's Chapel (Sheet 25). It is probable that the ore was 
obtained from the Great Limestone, which crops out in Snaisgill. 

Alston District, Cumberland 
general account 

The conditions under which ironstone occurs in the Alston 
District are similar to those found in Weardale, and the general 
account given under that locality applies to Alston also. In the 
latter district, however, according to Kendall/ iron-ore occurs 
in the Tyne-Bottom and Scar Limestones as well as in the Great 
Limestone. At Kilhope Fell, Xenthead, it has been worked in 
the Fell-Top Limestone (the highest limestone below the Millstone 
Grit), which locally "becomes ferruginous, probably owing to its 
beiug intersected by a considerable number of small veins carry- 
ing ' iron riders.' The brown lijematite ore occurring in this 
limestone varies from 3 to 7 ft. thick, and is of good quality."^ 
At Nentiiead a bed of brown hiematite, about 7 ft. in thickness, 
occurs in the Little Limestone, but the qualit}' of the ore is 
very variable.^ 

At Nenthead amorphous carbonate of iron was worked by Messrs. 
Bell Bros., Limited, and smelted at Wylam.* The iron obtained 
here, as well as from other carbonates and oxides in the same 
district, was of excellent quality, but the supply was uncertain 
and the working costly. The ore in the veins themselves, when 



» Op. cit., p. 142. 

' R. Meade, 'Coal and Iron Industries of the United Kingdom,' 1882, p. 417. 
' Loc. cit. 

* I. L. T?ell, ' On flie Manufacture of Iron in connexion with the Xorthumber- 
Jand ond Durham Coalfield,' licp. Brit. Asfoc. for 1863 (1864), p. T.U. 



12 



UNBEDDED IRON ORES 





Tons. 




1856 


8,089 


1864 


1857 


10,113 


1867 


1858 


17,094 


1869 


1859 


1.871 


1870 


1860 


J.931 


1871 


1861 


101 


1873 


1862 


8£0 


1874 


1863 


891 


1875 



pure, yielded perhaps 30 per cent, or more of iron ; but it gradually 
passed into carbonate of lime, from which it was with difficulty 
distinguished. 

The earliest ' Mineral Statistics ' that contain the outputs of 
iron-ore, those of 1855, mention Alston as an iron-producing 
district. In the following year the output of Alston Moor was 
separated in the Statistics from that of other places, and is given 
annually from 1856 until 1875. From that time onwards, except 
for 90 tons of ore from Ardale Head, Ousby, in 1886, and 
112 tons from Garrigill and Nenthead in 1889, no outputs appear 
in the Statistics. 

Output of Alston Moor. 

Tons. 

500 

25 

140 

1,349 

1.683 

3,032 

3,029 

1,151 

Iron-ore has been obtained near Alston from the Manor House 
:and Park or Horse Edge veins. 

W. W. Smyth ^ mentions that at Allenheads carbonate of iron 
occurs both in the regular lodes and in flats, becoming more 
abundant in the direction of Weardale. At Eodderup Fell, a 
rich lode known as the Craig Green or Bracken Syke Vein, in 
the Scar Limestone, is from 16 to 20 ft. wide, and in it iron 
locally takes the place of lead.^ 

On the moors of East Cumberland, and on the top of the 
Melmerby Scar Limestone, many poor lead-lodes occur, ranging 
a little north of east-north-east. Nearly all of them contain 
browu oxide of iron when lead fails.' Various levels driven into 
the hill-side on the east side of the South Tyne, and from the 
col where that river rises as far as the Tees, have, cut through 
the lead-belt into higher rocks productive only of iron-ore of little 
value. Samples of the deep-seated ores, both at Tyne Green and 
under the summit of Cross Fell, averaged only 33 per cent., but 
specimens from the weathered waste-heaps averaged 44 per cent, 
of iron. " Eastward, the iron in Sir John's and Tyne Green veins 
becomes rather siliceous, but parallel lodes in the adjacent manor 
of the Duke of Cleveland yielcl good brown percxide of iron, which 
is being accumulated in great heaps against the day when 
Middleton and Alston shall be joined by a railway."* 

We may mention, in this place, that the Home Office Statistics 
record 10 tons of ironstone from Middle Fell, Brough, "Westmor- 
land, in 1888; and from Longrigg Mine, Westmorland, 8,000 
tons of hsematite in 1877 and 1,454 tons in 1879. 



1 ' The Iron Ores of Great Britain ' (3Iem. Geol. Surv.), pt. i. 1856. p. 18. 

2 J. A. Phillips, ' A Treatise on Ore Deposits,' ed. 2, by H. Louis, 1896, p. 245. 

3 C. E. De Ranee, ' On the Occurrence of Lead, Zinc, and Iron Ores in some 
Rocks of Carboniferous Age in the North-west of England,' Geol. Mag., 1873, pp. 

,303-309. 

4 Ibid., p. 305. 



CO. DURHAM AND EAST CUMBERLAND 13 

DETAILS OF THE VEINS 

The following account deals with certain veins that were being 
prospected in 1917: — 

Horse Edge Vein, Alston 

The Alston Prospecting Syndicate, Limited, 170, Winchester House, 

Old Broad Street, London, E.G. 2. 

(Frospecting) 

Trials near Horse Edge, 6 miles north-east of Melmerby, and 
.2,000 yards due west of ' Cross House ' on the Penrith Road from 
Alston. Nearest Station : Alston (^N.E.E,.), 3| miles towards the 
north-east. ' 

Ordnance and Geological Maps : One-inch New Ser., 24 (Old 
Ser., 102 N.'W.}; six-inch Geological, Cumberland 33 S.E. and 
41 N.E. 

The vein is said to be in the Great Limestone and to range 
north-east and south-west. At one point it hades towards the 
south-east at an angle of about 30", but at another, supposed to 
be on the same vein, it is nearly vertical. The most distant trial- 
hole is believed to be on a cross-vein. The width of the main 
vein is stated to average from 30 to 35 ft. North-eastwards the 
veins have not been recognised beyond the fault (shown on the 
Geological Survey Map) that runs from N.W. to S.E. between 
Jiorse Edge and Park Fell. Towards the south-west their 
termination is not known. The outcrop of the vein, or veins, had 
been prospected at intervals over a distance of about 400 yards 
by trenches, shafts, and tunnelling and cross-cutting from the 
bottoms of the shafts. A pair of shafts were put down in one 
place on the cheeks of the vein to find its width. The overburden 
averages 6 ft., but limestone ' tumblers ' are occasionally met 
with as far down as 40 ft. Small pieces of 2"alena and barytes 
occur in the waste-heaps. At the trial farthest from Alston the 
ore is more earthy than elsewhere and is said to be phosphoric. 
The ore varies and would need washing or kibbling. It is intended 
to put up an aerial rope-way to Alston Station. 

Woodlands Level, Parkside Mines 

The Hedworth Barium Company, Limited, 1, St. Nicholas Buildings, 
Newcastle-on Tyiie 

{Pro8j)ecting) 

A day-level situated east of Mark Close, on the western side 
•of the South Tyne, about a quarter of a mile north-west of Alston 
Church. 

Ordnance and Geological Maps: One-inch New Ser., 25 (Old 
Ser., 102 N.E.); six-inch Cuml)erland, 33 S.E. Approx. Lat. 
64° 48' 55". Approx. Long. 2^ 20' 40". 

The mine having been abandoned about 1872, the workings had 
fallen in. Work was recommenced in Anarch, 1917, and by July 
about 200 yards of the level had been repaired. 

The level is driven westward in boulder-clay, but it was hoped 
that solid rock would be reached in a short distance and that a 
'Hat' of ore, reputed to have been left by the old workers, 
•would be struck. So far the old plan had been found accurate. 



14 UNBEDDED lEON OBES 

The vein probably runs south-westward in the Scar Limestone, 
and is presumably either the Park Grove Vein or the Park Grove- 
Sun Vein shown on the Geological Survey Map. 

Ardal£ Head, Ousby. 
The Cargo Fleet Iron Company, Limited, 35, Lime Street, London, B.C. 3 

{Prospecting) 

Trials situated at the head* of the gorge of Ardale Beck, between 
Ousby Eell and Skirwith Fell, some 3 miles E.N.E. of Ousby. 
Nearest railway-station : Langwathby (M.E.), about 8 miles by^ 
road in a westward direction. The site is about 2,400 ft. above 
O.D., and the more westerly vein is but 100 yards from the gorge. 

Ordnance and Geological Maps : One-inch New Ser., 24 (Old 
Ser. Geol., 102 N.W.); six-inch Cumberland, 51 N.E. Lat. 
54° 42' 55". Long. 2° 30' 35". 

Ardale Head is recorded in the Home Office Statistics as having 
yielded 90 tons of ' red hsematite ' in 1886. 

In July, 1917, it was said that two veins had been proved in 
the Great Limestone about a quarter of a mile apart and running 
N.W.-S.E. approximately, parallel to the outcrop of the beds. 
The thickness and extent of the veins were as yet unproved. The 
more westerly has a hade of about 45°. The country-rock dips 
about 1 in 12 in a more or less easterly direction. Prospecting 
was being carried on by trenches. If this proves successful, an 
adit will be made below and at right angles to the veins, and 
rises put up. 

The ore is a brown haematite said to contain on the average 
about 48 per cent, of iron and from 7 to 9 per cent, of manganese. 
Ore dug in the previous period of working has been left stacked 
on the ground, no doubt on account of the difficulty of transport. 
It is proposed to make a tramway on the south side of Ardale Beck 
to join the Midland Railway somewhere near Langwathby. 



CHAPTEE III 

NORTH WALES, DERBYSHIRE, AND THE ISLE OF MAN 

North "Wales 
Bv T. C. Cantkill and R. L. Sherlock ^ 

GENERAL ACCOUNT 

In North Wales small masses of haematite are associated with 
the Carboniferous Limestone and more rarely with the 
Carboniferous Basement Beds. The followino^ account is based 
on the (jeolo>;ical Survey Maps and Memoirs.^ The mines visited 
(in August, 1917) for the purpose of the present report are Dyserth 
and Cwm, Bodfari, and Ty'n-y-caeau, as beinjj- those most likely 
to be reopened. No ore was then being raised from any of the 
North Wales haematite mines. 

The Carboniferous Limestone Series of Flintshire presents a 
certain sequence of lithological types, graduating one into the 
other, but recognisable over wide areas. The iron-pres are 
confined almost wholly to the lower part of the series, and are 
developed in them only where suitable conditions prevailed. 
They are associated with copper in small quantities, and in one 
locality with nickel and cobalt. Ores of lead and zinc, on the 
other hand, are confined to the upper part of the series and are 
not associated with ores of iron. 

In the northern part of Flintshire, and in parts of the adjacent 
counties on the west, a district to which the iron-ores are confined, 
the sequence referred to may be briefly described as follows : — 

4. An uppcT part in which aiv includf'd thin-betklt'd black limestones. 

3. A central part of massive grey and white limestones, from the upper part 
of which most of the lead-on^ has been obtaineti. 

2. A lower part, which consists of dark argillaceous limestones and shales, 
pa><sing down into 

1. Basement conglomerate, locally coarse and of great thickness, but else- 
where represented only by red shales with little conglomerate. 

Most of the occurrences have been found in the lower part of 
3 and in 2, but in one outcrop ore has been worked in the lower 
part of 1. 

The ore in 3 and 2 usually occu}»ies chambers or irregularly 
widened-out spaces in joints or faults, and is (•oiiii)aiable in mode 
of occurrence, and jiresumably in origin, with the ores of West 
Cumberland. In 1 it has replaced a thin impure limestone, which 
lies close to the base of the conglomerate.^ This limestone has 



1 One-inch Old Series .Snwt« 70 N.W., N.E., S.W., S.E. and 74 N.E. 'Toe 
Geology of the CViast.s adjohiing Rhyl, Abergele, and Ck)Iwyn ' (Explanation of 
Sheet 79 X-W.). 1S85. and 'The (;<<ology of the neighbourhoods of Flint, 
Mold, and Ruthin ' (Explanation of Siiwn 79 8.E.), 189;). 

- A. Strahan and A. O. Walker, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xxxv, 1879, 
p. 268. 

b2 



16 UNBEDDED IRON ORES 

only a local development, and its replacement by iron-ore has 
taken place locally along faults and, to a less degree, along part 
of the outcrop. 

The earliest return of haematite raised in North Wales appears 
in the Mineral Statistics for 1857. From that date until 1913 
one or more mines had a small output in most years. The ten- 
year period from 1907-1916, inclusive, produced 7,357 tons, the 
best year being 1911, with an output of 2,333 tons. Details of 
output for the individual mines are given later, under the 
descriptions of the mines. 

"J.'he reserves are not likely to be considerable, for no large body 
of ore has been found in any part of North Wales. Explorations 
are proceeding in the Dyserth and Uwm district and at Ty'n-y- 
caeau ; otherwise the mines are dormant or extinct. 

DETAILS OF THE MINES 
Dyserth and Cwm Disteict 

MOEL UIKADDUCi MINE, NEAll CySERTH 

A group of shafts and openca'st workings situated on the top 
and eastern slopes of the liili and extending north and soutli 
for about 800 yards (Fig. 1, p. 17). 

One-inch New iSeries Ordnance Map 95; Old Series Geological, 
79 N.W. ; Six-inch Geological, Flintshire 4 N.E. and 5 A.W. 
Lat. 53° 17' 25" to 53" 17' 53". Long. 3° 23' 50" to 3° 24' 25". 

The working of iron-ore in open pits on this hill has been 
attributed to tlie iRomans on the evidence of the discovery of a 
Roman sword and helmet. The first return of ore raised was 
made to the Mining Record Office in 1860. 

The ore occurs as nodules of dark, hard, almost pure peroxide 
of iron in a red ferruginous clay which, being washed away, 
leaves smaller grains containing about 1 per cent, of titanium 
oxide. It is found in pockets or widened-out spaces in Joints 
ranging about north-north-west. The pockets are irregular in 
shape, but generally bounded by curving vertical walls like those 
of a swallow-hole. Downwards they are usually terminated at a 
slight depth from the surface (rarely exceeding 60 yards) by the 
rapid closing in of the walls. They are said to be richer in their 
contents near the top of the hill than at the base, where they 
are too poor to repay working. 

One of the principal joints in this hill is known as the Main 
Joint, and has been followed for a distance of about 200 yards 
along the east slopes, and to a depth of 60 yards. It yielded 
ore containing on the average 50 per cent, of metallic iron. Other 
old workings occur near the top of the hill, and nearer the junction 
of the Limestone with the Basement Beds on the south side. 

The hsematite of some of the joints is associated with small 
quantities of nickel and cobalt ores, which were described in this 
connexion by C. Le Neve Foster^ in 1882. The principal joint 
containing these ores was distinguished by its direction, which was 
N. 33'* E., and by a tendency to open out downwards after showing 
a tendency to close. It was worked from 1870 for a few years 

^ Trans. Roy. Geol. Soc. Cormvall, vol. x, pt. iv, p. 107. 



NORTH WALES 



1- 



for nickel and cobalt to a reputed depth of 240 ft. In another 
case manganese occurred without traces of nickel and cobalt. 

In September, 1917, trial shafts were beinpr sunk on the eastern 
slopes of the hill. Two were reported to have reached depths 
of 48 and 57 ft. respectively. The old opencast is 40 or 50 ft. 
deep. 

The output from Moel Hiraddug has not been separately 
recorded. 

CWM IROy MINE 

A group of shafts and opencast workings on Marian Ffrith, 
half-a-mile north-east of Cwm Church (Fig. 1). '^ ■ 

One-inch maps as for Moel Hiraddug; six-inch Geological, 
Flintshire 5 N.W. Lat. 53° 17' 10" to 53° 17' 33". Long. 
3° 23' 30". 

Fig. 1. — .1/'^;; of Tron-mining District, Civm, near Dyserth, 
Flintshire. 




YARDS 

lOO 300 30O 400 SOO 600 700 800 900 



\CARBONIFE(tOUS 
I LIMESTONC 



O O O 

O C 
O O C 



BASEMCST-BCOS [2222 



'TTP 



IMOICATCS fAULT, THC OO-^THROI' SIDt SH£WN THUS • 

^■— ^^ WHERt PROOVCriVt 

7T> oiR or snuTA, thc anqll hi occaccs 



e 

Cu 
re 



SHAFT 
COPRtn OOi 
IKOH 



18 UNBEDDED IRON ORES 

These workings liave been opened along faults, which "run 
in general about N. 15° W., and have the ettect of throwing the 
limestone down to the east about 30 yards. The ore occurred 
partly in veins and partly in large chambers or pockets hollowed 
out in the lowest bed of limestone, where it rests upon the red 
shales and conglomerates of the Basement Beds. The underlying 
Wenlock Shale was entered to a depth of 20 yards in the No. 1 
Shaft. The ground has now fallen, in in the ereatest confusion 
in consequence of the working out of the irregular deposits of 
ore."i 

In the years 1860-75, inclusive, the mine is shown in the 
Mineral Statistics to have yielded at least 22,831 tons, the first 
return being 4,100 tons in 1860; but in 1885 little was being done 
beyond sinking shallow trial-shafts on the numerous joints in 
the neighbourhood. It was then reported " that about 6 tons 
of copper ore were raised from a joint about 150 yards east-south- 
east of Tyddyn-y-cyll. An attempt was made to drive a day-level 
under this ground from the ravine north of Cwm, 150 yards 
south of the Marian road, but was abandoned after penetrating 
to a distance of about 130 yards in Wenlock Shale. Further north 
there have been several trials along the base of the limestone 
and in the red Basement Beds, but without any result." 

The following figures, taken from the Mineral Statistics, show 
the output of the Cwm Mine : — 

Tons. 
? 
'.'. ... '.'.'. 4,430 
3,860 

1,039 
25 



Shafts and opencasts situated at Henfryn, 1^ miles east of 
Dvserth Church. Six-inch Geological Map, Flintshire 5 N.W. 
Lat. 53° 18' 10". Long. 3° 23' 5". 

" In the years 1872-75 a poor ore (averaging about 30 per 
cent, of metallic iron) was worked at Henfryn. It was found 
in veins running a little west and a little east of north, and is 
associated with a manganiferous ochrey clay, and with traces of 
copper pyrites.'' The quantity of ore sold amounted to 340 tons 
10 cwts., according to the Mineral Statistics. 

CaEKWYS DlSTlUCT 

• The following trials and disused m.ines are situated near 
Caerwys. All fall within the area of the one-inch New Series 
Ordnance Sheet 108; Old Series Geological Map 79 S.E.; and 
six-inch Geological, Flintshire 8 N.E. The descriptions are 
quoted from the Geological Survey Memoir.^ 

Gledlom Iron Mine. — Situated half a mile E.S.E. of Tsceifiog 
church. Lat. 53° 13' 53". Long. 3° 15' 24". 

1 'The Coa^t adjoining Rtiyi,' etc. {Mem. Geol. Surv.). 1885, p. 53. 

2 Ibid., p. 54. 

3 ' Geol. of Flint, Mold, and Ruthin,' 1890. p. 198. 



Year. 


Tons. 


Year 


1860 


4,100 


1865 


1861 


4,000 


1872 


1862 


? 


1873 


1863 


? 


1874 


1864 


'.'. ... ... 5,377 


1875 




HENFRYN J 


IINE 



NORTH WALES Xft 

" A vein runs north and south and underlies west, but the ore 
occurred in pockets and was worked partly in open trenches, while 
the shafts reach a depth of 52 to bo yards. The ore, which 
amounted to about loU tons a month lor nine years, was sent 
to Darwin" [DarwenJ. 

Llwyni Iron Mine. — Situated half a mile east of Ysceihog 
church. Lat. 53° 14' 2". Long. 3° 15' 32". 

This mine " lies 300 yards north-west of the last-described. The 
vein, or rather cavity, runs north-west, and has been dug com- 
pletely out for about 40 yards, while at either end of it a shaft 
has been sunk to a depth of about 50 yards. A. strong north 
and south joint brought in a diiferent ground at the north end 
of the cavity." 

Caerwys. — A trial-shaft for haematite is situated on the high- 
road 350 yards north of the centre of the town. Another trial 
is situated 500 yards S.W. of the same point, and a third trial 
in a ravine, 720 yards W. 20° S. from the town. 

Bryn-Sion. — Situated f mile S. 35° E. from Caerwys. Lat. 
53° 14' 12". Long. 3° 17' 44". " At Bryn-Sion ... the ore occurs 
in a joint running a little west of north for about 100 yards, 
and was worked for a short time for the Brymbo Ironworks." 

Fant-(jwyn. — Situated half a mile X.E. of Ysceihog church. 
Lat. 53° 14' 25". Long. 3° 15' 41". At Pant-gwyn the ore "lies 
in a small north and south fault crossing a ravine. Two shafts 
in the bottom of the ravine attain a depth of 31 yards and one 
on the top of 44 yards, with a cross-cut 21 yards westwards into 
the vein. The vein at the bottom of the shafts underlay west, 
was 7 ft. broad, and composed of a layer of iron-ore on either 
side, and of loose blocks in the centre. Little or no ore was 
ever sold from here, and the works were abandoned about the 
year 1873." 

The Vale of Clwyd Distkict 
kodfari mine 

Situated a quarter of a mile N.X.W. of Bodfari church, 
4 miles N.E. of Denbigh Station (Eig. 2, p. 20j. 

One-inch New Ser. Orduauce 107; Old Ser. Geological 79 S.W.; 
six-inch Geological, Elintshire 8 N.W. and 8 S.W. Lat. 
53° 13' 20" to 53° 13' 28". Long. 3° 21' 23" to 3° 21' 45". 

The mine lies in a small area of Carboniferous Limestone about 
500 yards wide from west-south-west to east-north-east, and 
800 yards long. The limestone is bounded on the west by the 
Yale of Clwyd Fault, which throws it against Buuter; on the 
north and east by faults throwing it against Wenlock Shale; 
on the south it disappears under a river-terrace and alluvium. 
In addition, a fault, i-arrying barvtes, runs iu the limestone 

Parallel to the eastern boundary and about 90 yards west of it. 
^'he limestone has been partly and quite irregularly converted 
into hpematite. The workings are situated on the north- 
eastern part of the outcrop, where the limestone is bare of 
superficial deposits. The six-inch Geological Map dated 1877-80 
shows a number of opencasts, also shafts, from 18 to 22 yards 
deep, one disused and seven working. The only data obtainable 



20 



UNBEDDED IRON ORES 



relating to the history of the mine are those of output in the 
Mineral Statistics. From 1877 to 1883, inclusive, 5,770 tons were 
raised. From 1897 to 1909 the total output was 8,743 tons, the 












I 







§v 



^ 



19. o-t, 



ll 



figure for the last year being 150 tons. The average percentage 
of iron is given for 1897-8 as 25, for some later years as 30 to 32, 
and for 1909 as 45. 



NORTH WALES 21 

DINGLE MINE^ 

Situated 3 miles west of Llaudeg'la and 4 miles S.S.E. of 
liutliiu. 

One-incli New Ser. Oidnauce 121; Did Ser. Geological 7-1 N.E.;. 
six-inch Geological, Denbighshire 26 ^.E. Lat. 53° 3' 26". 
Long. 3° 16' 28". 

A deposit of haematite occurs in a shattered and heavily 
slickensided belt of limestone that runs E. 25° X., parallel to 
the Dingle Fault. The line of crush passes south of 'iy'n-liwyn 
(about 200 yards west of Dingle) and eastward as far as the 
Vale of Clwyd Fault. The deeper parts of the rock seem to 
be the richest in. haematite. 

The rock was first quarried and then a large underground 
gallery, 30-40 yards long and 9-10 ft. high, was driven eastward 
along the belt. A level also was driven southward from a point 
about 100 yards north of the quarry, to win the deposit at lower 
depths, and a trial-shaft reached the ore almost at the point 
where it runs out against the Vale of Clwyd Fault. 

The haematite is a low-grade ore and contains a small percentage 
of manganese. It did not pay to work, as haulage was too 
expensive. The mine was abandoned over 50 years ago. 

Abergele District 

ty'n-y-caeau iron ore mine 

Messrs. Jaeger Brothers, 8, Union Court, Old Broad Street, London, E.G. 2 

A slant or slope about 150 yards west of Ty'n-y-caeau- Farm, 
2 miles south-west of Abergele (Fig. 3, p. 24). Eailway-station : 
Abergele and Pensarn (L. and N.AV^.), 3| miles by road. 

One-inch New Ser. Ordnance Map, 107; Old Ser. Geological, 
79 S.W.; six-inch Geological, Denbighshire 4 S.AV. and S.E. 
Lat. 53° 15' 38". Long. 3° 37' 6". 

The ore in this neighbourhood occurs as a replacement of 
impure limestone at or near the bottom of the Basement-Beds of 
the Carboniferous, overlying Silurian Shales. The Basement- 
Beds consist of at least 500 ft. of red conglomerates, sandstones 
and shales, with some lenticular bands, up to 10 ft. in thickness, 
of bastard limestone (cornstone) near the base.^ According to 
the six-inch Geological Map the Ty'n-y-<'aeau iron-mine is situated 
on the faulted eastern edge of a small outlier or isolated patch of 
these Basement-Beds. 

A large quantity of haematite was obtained from the fault prior 
to 1885, but subsequent workings have shown that the ore-body is 
not confined to the line of the supposed fault, but that it occurs 
as an irreguhir flat, varying from 6 to 14 ft. in thickness, and 
dipping north-west at 20'^ to 30°. On the south and south-west 
the ore-bed appears to thin out against 'shale' or 'slate,' 
presumably Silurian, and on the west to be (Uit otf by the same 
rock brought up by a fault. 

The ore has been follmved down the dip for about 100 yards 
W.N.AV. from the outcrop, and such reserves as there may be 
appear to lie in that direction, but the extent to which the ore 

^ The information relating to JJingle is supphtd by Mr. B. Smith. 
- Pen-y-coed on the Old Series One-inch map ; not named on the New Series 
map. 

3 A. Strahan and A. 0. Walker, Quart.Journ. Geol. Soc., vol. xxxv, 1879, p. 268. 



22 



UNBEDDED IKON ORES 



will continue cannot as yet be foreseen. If the fault sKown on 
the Geological Survey Maps is incorrectly placed, the Basement- 
Beds and any contained ore. may also extend eastward and north- 
eastward of the mine. 

A borehole put down early in 1918 at a point 150 yards north- 
west of the mouth of the slant proved the following Basement- 
Beds and Silurian rocks; the thicknesses need correcting for a 
dip of 23°: — 



Soft clay ... 

Red sandstone, fine-grained 

Purple-red sandstones (gritty, and also fine-grained), 
and fine conglomerates, \\dth beds of cornstone and 
of crystalline limestone, passing downward 

Limestones, brown, purple-grey, and light red ; some 
hosmatite 

Haematite and ferruginous limestone 

Purple and green mudstones (Silurian) to 



Ft. In. 
13 

4 6 



87 6 



16 





24 





11 


8 



156 8 



The ore consists of both red and blue (' steel ') haematite, with 
some kidney and puddle ore. Some specular ore occurs also. 
The haematite contains a certain percentage of manganese, which 
about 20 years ago amounted to 8 per cent., but has gradually 
, -dropped to about 1-5 or 1-0. The percentage of metallic iron has 
varied from 30 to 50 ; phosphorus, -02 to -036, occasionally rising 
to -04; sulphur (in 1883), -43 to -58; and silica, M-5 to 16-2 and 
occasionally 20. 

A series of 16 analyses made by the Darwen and Mostyn Iron 
Company, of Mostyn, covering 2,509 tons of the ore, showed the 
weighted mean percentage of iron to be 39*96, while the manganese 
varied from 1'23 to 5'2 per cent. Five analyses of smaller-grade 
ore, covering 675 tons, gave 36"02 as the weighted mean percentage 
of iron, the manganese varying from 1-4 to 2*37 per cent. 

A clean samjjle of ore taken from the face showed: iron ol, 
manganese 0-98, phosphorus 0-029, and silica 14-2 per cent. 

The following analyses were made by Mr. E. Proctor, of 
JSTewcastle-on-Tyne, of ore taken from shallow workings in 1883 : — 



1 


Steel or 


Steel or 


Puddle Ore, 


Manganese 


j 


Blue Ore (1) 


Blue Ore (2) 


soft, red. 


Ore. 


Fe.Oa ... 


65-28 


76-57 


81-43 




Fe 


— 


— 


- — 


41-42 


Mn.Og ... 


— 


0-56 


— 


24-54 


Mn 


1-16 


— 


— 


— 


Al.Og ... 


1-66 


— 


— 


— 


Al 


— 


— 


— 


17-09 


CaCOg ... 


5-98 


2-50 


5-25 


— 


S 


0-58 


— 


— 


0-43 


P,0, ... 


09 


0-02 


trace 


— 


p 


— 


— 


— 


0-21 


Insol. 


11-35 


19-50 


— 


14-38 




86-10 


99-15 


86-68 


98 07 


Metallic 










Iron ... 


45-70 


53-60 


57-00 


— 



NORTH WALES 23 

Th.e working of ironstone here a^ears to have begun in 1883, 
when ore wa.s raised from an open pit. From this the ore has 
since been followed under the cover of Carboniferous rocks by 
means of a slant or slope for a distance of lUU yards in a west- 
north-west direction and to a depth of 80 ft. below the surface. 
The ore-face in 1913 was 35 to 46 ft. long and 10 ft. high. The 
ore was brought to the surface in tubs by an inclined tramway. 

The hardness of some of the ore necessitated a pressure of 
80 lbs. for the air-drills. The water to be dealt with appears 
to be mainly surface-water. At the time of our visit (3rd August, 
1917) the workings, which had been idle since 1913, were^ooded, 
but they have now been unwatered, and the reopening of the 
mine is under consideration. 

The following figures are based on the Home Office Statistics 
of Output : — 



Year. 


Tons 
raised. 


Percentage; 
of Iron. 


Value in £. 


Value psr 
Ton. 


1883 


328 


— 


— 


— 


1884 


133 


— 


— 


— 


liM)\) 


2.5() 


50 


125 


lO.s. Od. 


1910 


432 


43 


259 


12.S. Od. 


1911 


2,333 


42 


1,209 


lOs. 4d. 


1912 


1,793 


40 


540 


6>. Od. 


1913 


657 


40 


248 


7s. 6tl. 



In 1909 the mine was taken over by the Bell Metal Mining 
Company, Limited, but was abandoned in 1913, partly through 
difficulties of transport. The bulk of the ore went to the Darwen 
and Mostyn Iron Company, Mostyn. 

For much of the above information we are indebted to 
Mr. J. D. Wilkinson, of Messrs. G. W. Wilkinson, Mining 
Engineers, Whitehaven, and to Messrs. Jaeger Brothers. 

NANT-UCHAF MINE 

Messrs. Jaeger Brothers, 8, Union Court. Old Broad Street, EC. 2 
Shafts^ situated 400 yards north-east of Nant-uchaf, 1\ miles 
south-west of Abergele (Fig. 3, ]). 24). Nearest railway-station: 
Abergele and Pensarn (L. and j!Si.W.), 2^ miles by road. 

One-inch New JSer. Ordnance Map, 95; Old Ser. Geological, 
79 S.W. ; six-inch Geological, Denbighshire 4 S.E. Lat. 
63° 16' 10". Long. 3° 35' 52". 

The ore occurs as a flat or bed near the bottom of the Carboni- 
ferous Biisenieiit-lieds. According to tlie six-inch geological maj) 
these di]) N.X.W. at 35°. The ore-l)ed, which is overlain by 
thick-bedded hard hrown grit and red gritty limestone, and is 
separated from the Silurian shales and flags below by a 4-inch 
band of dark-red sandstone, varies in thickness from 5 to 20 ft. 
It consists of two layers : an upper band of carbonate and black 
oxide of manganese,- with an average thickness of 2 ft. (varying 
from 7 in. to 7 ft., with occasional pockets up to 8 ft. thick), 



1 See also I)e Ranee. Trans. Manchester Geol. Soc., vol. xvii (1882-4). p. 47, 
and Coll. Guard., vol. xliv, 1882, p. 895. Also * Geol. of Rhyl, Abergele, and 
Cohvyn ' (Mem. Geol. Sun:). 1885, pp. 55, 56. 

^ ' Special Reports on Mineral Resources ' {Mem. Geol. Surv.). vol. i. Tungsten 
and Manganese Ores, ed. 2, 1916. p. m. 



24 



UNBEDDED IRON ORES 



and a lower band of red hsematite, which varies in thickness 
(inversely as the manganese-band) between 5 ft. and 20 ft. This 
compound ore-bed follows the dip of the country-rock, and any 
reserves would presumably lie to the north-west. 




The haematite appears to have been discovered 
1872, and Nant-uchaf is first mentioned in the M 



about the year 
ineral Statistics 



DERBYSHIRE 



25 



in 1874; it is absent in 1876-79, and finally disappears after 1883. 
The ore was won by shafts. Some of the deeper of these had been 
abandoned by 1882. At that period three were being used by 
the Abergele Haematite Company; ISb. 1, to the rise, being -45 ft. 
deep; JN'o. 2 (the engine-shaft), 80 yards away to the deep, being 
108 ft. in deptn; while No. 3, 60 yards farther to the deep, was 
126 ft. A 'boring, carried down for 45 ft. info the Silurian rocks, 
found no ore in them. 

In following the dipway from No. 1 to No. 3 shaft, haematite 
was worked for a distance of about 200 yards from No. 1. In the 
shallower part of the mine, down to a depth of 90 i^^^., the 
ore-body is said to have been 30 to 45 ft. in width; beyond this, 
down to 40 yards depth, it narrowed down to 24 ft., and the 
manganese-bed grew tliiu. In one part of the mine the ore-body 
had a width of 75 ft. 

The working of haematite appears to have proceeded for several 
years before the value of the associated manganese-ore was 
recognised by Mr. H. J. Wright, now of Llanbedr, Merioneth, 
to whom we are indebted for particulars. The mine was 
abandoned in 1883 on the price of haematite falling to 10s. 3d. 
per ton. In March, 1918, the reopening of the mine was under 
consideration, and a boring now (July, 1918) in progress has 
reached a depth of 99 ft. 

The following outputs are taken from the Mineral Statistics 
. and Home Office Returns : — 



Year. 
1874 
1875 
1880 



Tons. 


Year 


2.053 


1881 


2,242 


1882 


624 


1883 



Tons- 
358 

1,171 
200 



The ore is designated ' brown haematite ' in 1874 and 1875 ; 
* haematite ' in 1880 and 1881 ; ' red haematite ' in 1882 and 1883. 
In 1882 the average percentage of metallic iron is given as 45. 

OTHEB TRIALS NEAR ABEKGELE 

Un the western l)ank of the Gele near Siambr-weu, on the 
Llanrwst road furlongs south of Abergele, a drift was made 
in the Carboniferous Basement-Beds, and in 1880 some 28^ tons 
of ore were extracted. Several other trial-shafts and levels 
between Colwyn and Dinorben, marked on the six-inch Geological 
Map, Denbigh 4, are shown on Fig. 3, p. 24. 

Derbyshire 

Haematite has been worked in the Carboniferous Limestone 
of this county in a few places. It occurs in fissures in the 
limestone' in much the same manner as in the Barrow district, 
and also in pockets within a few feet of the surface, from 
which it is gatliered by the lead-miners. It has been worked 
by the Sheepbridge Iron Company at Hand Dale, near Hartington, 
and by the Butterley Iron Company at Fryden Dale, near 
Newhaven (2^ miles east of Hartington). At Fryden Dale the 
haematite was found at no great depth ; but at Hand Dale it 

^ A. H. Stokes, ' Economic (jk?ology of Derbyshire,' Lond., 1878. Also 
Trails. Chesterfield Inst. Enj., vol. vi, 1878. pp. 60-155. 



26 UNBEDDEI) IRON ORES 

was won by shafts, in some cases 40 yards deep. Stokes thought 
that considerable deposits existed near Newhaven, but that the 
difficulty of transit rendered them commercially unworkable. 

The localities concerned fall within Sheet 111 (Buxton) of the 
New Series one-inch Ordnance map. The Geological Survey Map, 
Old Series, 81 S.E., published in 1867, shows an ironstone mine 
at Elton Common, 2 miles W.S.W. of Winster, and another at 
a place 3 miles E. of Hartington (probably Fryden Dale); also 
a lode at Narrow Dale, If miles S. of Hartington, another at 
Gatcham Grange, 2^ miles S.S.W. of that town, and a third 
three-quarters of a mile west of Winster. The Fryden Dale 
occurrence is about a quarter of a mile from the Cromford and 
High Peak Railway. In 1903 a trial for haematite was made at 
Lark Pasture Plantation (now called Alsopmoor Plantation), 
3 miles S.E. of Hartington. 

The Mineral Statistics for the years 1855 to 1867 mention 
peroxide of iron in the output of Derbyshire, but do not separate 
it from the Coal-Measure ores. 

According to Farey,^ haematite was formerly found in rounded 
masses in ' alluvial deposits ' near Meesham, Newhaven and Over- 
Haddon, and was used by button-makers. It must be 
remembered, however, that under alluvial deposits Farey included 
many superficial deposits other than alluvium. The same writer 
mentions a mine " south of Newhaven House " in which red iron- 
ore had been got from the Carboniferous Limestone. 

Isle of Man 

Veins carrying haematite and some spathic ore occur in the 
Manx Slates (Cambrian?) in the Maughold Head district, in the 
north-eastern part of the island, and have been mined, particularly 
between the years 1855 and 1874, during which period they 
yielded in the aggregate 12,896 tons of haematite. The ore took 
the form of detached bunches, and the mining was never 
■profitable. Judging from the output of the old workings, such 
reserves as may exist cannot be estimated at more than a few 
thousand tons." The workings are described in detail in the 
Geological Survey Memoir,'' from which the following account is 
compiled. 

In the northern part of the island an area of Carboniferous 
Limestone, of unknown extent, is buried deeply under Glacial 
deposits. The conditions of this limestone resemble those of the 
haematite-bearing limestones of Cumberland. The possibility of 
haematite occurring in this part of the Isle of Man has been 
frequently discussed, but has not been hitherto practically tested 
by boring. 

In all parts of the island spathic ore occurs as a constituent 
of many of the metalliferous veins; but, as shown by the Mineral 
Statistics, the amount sold in 11 years (1871-1881) did not exceed' 
1,886 tons, nearly all of which can be attributed to Foxdale. 

1 ' General View of the Agriculture and Mineral? of Dsrbyshire,' 8v.), Lend., 
vol. i. 1811, pp. 403,265. 

2 * Summary of Progress for 1917 ' (Mem. Geol. Surv.), 1918, p. 14. 

3 'The Geology of the Me of Man,' 1903, pp. 125, 291, 539-541. 



ISLE OF MAN 2T 

The haematite of the Maughold veins may have been introduced 
by downward percolation Irom the New Ked rocks, which, are 
known to be present under the Glacial drift in the north of the 
island and probably at one time extended southward onto the 
Manx Slates. 

The productive haematite-veins in the slates are confined to a 
1-imited district around Maughold Head, 3 miles south-east of 
Ramsey. The general course, of the veins is north-north-west 
and south-south-east, and none has been traced for more than 
half a mile. The Maughold Head Mines^ include workings at 
Stack Mooar on the north of the headland, at the GlCibe (half 
a mile farther to the south-east), and at Drynane on tlie south 
of the headland. At another locality, 1| miles south-west of 
Maughold Head, a north-and-south vein has been worked in the 
Ballajora Iron Mine,^ situated at Margher-e-breck. 

The Drynane Mine was active as far back as 1700, and, at a 
later period, from 1857 to 1874; the Glebe Mine was opened up 
about 1836; Ballajora flourished between 1858 to 1874, since 
which time all the mines have fallen into disuse. The reports 
by Warington W. Smyth during the period 1858-1873 on the 
Drynane and Ballajora mines show that the discontinuous bunchy- 
occurrence of the ore and the thinning of the veins forbade any 
prospect of the mines being profitable. 

At the Maughold Head Mine, near Stack Mooar, the vein 
exposed in tlie cliff strikes in a south-easterly direction and hades 
nortl>eastward at 15° from the vertical. It consists mainly of 
fault-breccia and quartz, with cavities containing haematite, and 
is about 40 ft. wide. An adit was driven from a little above 
high-water mark for 95 fathoms, but yielded little ore. 

The Glebe Mine, worked hy a shaft and levels, is said to 
have proved more productive. The levels were driven north- 
westw^ard for 212 fathoms and south-eastward for 196 fathoms. 

At the Drynane Mine, opened on a different vein, the lode 
was in places 15 ft. w'ide, but elsewhere scarcelv perceptible. It 
hades to the east. The haematite, which occurred in discontinuous 
bunches, was won by a day-level, driven in from the cliff and 
following the vein in a north-north-west direction for 320 fathoms. 
There was a shaft also. The mine yielded a large quantity of 
haematite between the mouth of the level and the shaft, but 
little was fuund farther in. 

The Ballajora Mine was opened on a vein coursing north-and- 
south and hading eastward. The lode, which proved irregular, 
splitting toward the north into two branches, yielded impure 
spathic ore and red Juvniatite. Some parts ot the lode were only 
1 to 2 ft. wide; elsewhere it was 2 to 5 ft. wide. The. ore was 
won by shafts. 



1 Si.x-iiich maps 5 !S.E. and 8 N.E. 
' JSix-iiich map 8 N.E. 



CHAPTEE IV 

BRISTOL DISTRICT, WEST SOMERSET AND NORTH 

DEVON 

By T. C. Cantrill and K. L. Sherlock 

Bristol District 

general account 

Red and brown lisematites liave been raised in the Bristol 
district^ in past times from flie Dolomitic Conglomerate of 
Triassic age, and also from tbe Carboniferous Limestone and 
Coal Measures, but no large deposits have been discovered. It 
is as impersistent beds in the iJolomitic Conglomerate that the 
-ore is most largely disseminated ; but it also forms flats, or fills 
pockets, faults, and fissures, in the Carboniferous Limestone and 
Coal Measures wherever now or formerly covered by the Triassic 
rocks. 

In the absence of detailed records it is not in all cases possible 
to say whether the ore at the following places was found in 
the Limestone or in the Dolomitic Conglomerate ; in some instances 
it was probably found in both. 

In the Dolomitic Conglomerate the ores have been discovered 
at Westbury ; Clifton ; St. George's or Easton-in-Gordano ; 
Clapton-in-Gordano ; Winford district (6 miles south-west of 
Bristol) ; Broadfield Down, near Wmf ord^ Chilcompton (3 miles 
ijouth-west of Eadstock) ; Gurney Slade, near Binegar (5| miles 
south-west of Radstock) ; Blagdon (8 miles N.N.A\ . of Wells); 
East and West Harptree (6 miles north of Wells) ; Wookey 
and Higher Pits, near Wells; and Wick, in the Golden Valley 
(7 miles east of Bristol). 

In the Limestone the ores have been found at Ashton Hill and 
Providence Place or Providence, a mile west of Long Ashton 
(2 miles south-west of Bristol) ; Banwell, 5 miles east of Weston- 
super-Mare; Beacon Batch, a mile south-west of Blagdon; Lamb 
Bottom, a mile south of Compton Martin (T miles north of Wells) ; 
Broadfield Down; Yatton; Priddy (4 miles N.N.W. of Wells); 
and Nunney (2^ miles south-west of Frome). 

In the Coal Measures the ore occurs as a vein along a fault 
in the Pennant Grit at Frampton Cottrell and Iron Acton, and 
also at Rangeworthy, on the great fault that runs northward 
from Coalpit Heath to Cromhall, in the northern part of the 
coalfield. Ores occur also, apparently in similar circumstances, 
at Temple Cloud, 5 miles W.N.W. of Radstock. 

1 R. Etheridge, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xxvi, 1870, p. 174. J. Anstie, 
' The Coal Fields of Gloucestershire and Somersetshire,' 8vo, 1873, pp. 99-101. 
H. B. Woodward, ' Geology of East Somerset and the Bristol Coal-Fields ' {Mem. 
Geol. Surv.), 1876, pp. 165-7. ' Statistics of Output ' of Iron Ores {Geological 
Purvey and Home Office), annually. 



BRISTOL DISTRICT 



29 



The haematite in the Carboniferous Limestone and Coal 
Measures was presumably' formed by infiltration of ferruginous 
solutions from the Triassic deposits (Dolomitic Conglomerate and 
Keuper Marl), that in the Dolomitic Conglomerate being due to a 
concentration of the same solutions at the bottom of the Triassic 
deposits themselves. 

At most of the places mentioned above, the haematite has been 
worked for iron-smelting ; but in some cases it has proved to 
be of no use except for the manufacture of paint, as at Winford. 
The following table, based on the Mineral Statistics, shows the 
yield of the separate localities so far as these can be dis- 
entangled : — 





Output of Haematites from 1856 on 


imrd {in tons). 


Year. 


Yatton. 


Winford 
District. 


Ashton 

Hill. 

• 


Frampton 
Cottrell. 


Iron Acton. 


1856 ... 


5,000 


1,500 








1857 ... 


6,000 


1,200 


— 


— 


— 


1858 ... 


707 


— 


2.000 


— 


— 


1859 ... 


1,580 


— 


750 


— 


— 


1860 ... 


569 


— 


? 








1861 ... 


175 


— 




) 


— 





1862 ... 


— 


— 




) 


5,107 


— 


1863 ... 


— 


— 




) 


6,000 


100 


1864 ... 


74 


— 




J 


11,000 


250 


1865 ... 




— 


620 


8,000 


100 


1866 ... 


— 


— 


635 


6,000 


50 


1867 ... 


— 


— 


— 


6,100 


— 


1868 ... 


— 


— 


— 


6.566 





1869 ... 


— 


— 


626 


6,773 





1870 ... 


— 


— 


2.110 


15,249 


— 


1871 ... 


— 


— 


2.654 


8,487 


— 


1872 ... 


— 


— 


2.000 


9,201 


— 


187.3 ... 





— 


15,800 


13,682 


— 


1874 ... 


— 


— 


— 


14,842 


— 


1875 ... 


— 


1,674 


— 


8,845 


— 


1876 ... 


— 


2,762 




— 





1877 ... 


— 


4,000 


— 


— 


— 


1878 ... 


— 


3,000 


— 


— 





1879 ... 





? 











1880 ... 




1,100 










1881 ... 





3,618 


— 


— 


— 


1882 ... 


— 


4,713 


— 


— 





1883 ... 


— 


4,314 


— 








1884 ... 


— 


3,582 


— 








1885 ... 


— 


2,099 











1886 ... 


— 


4,031 


— 








1887 ... 


— 


1.484 


— 








1888 ... 


— 


1,388 











1889 ... 


— 


1,400 


— 








189<1 ... 


— 


636 











1891 ... 


— 













1892 ... 


— 













1893 ... 


— 




— 


— 


— 



In addition to the five places given in the table, mines on the 
Mendip Hills yielded, in 1873, 118 tons, and, in 1874, 57 tons 
of haematite; one of these was probably near the Castle of Comfort, 



30 TJNBEDDED IRON ORES 

Priddy, where, according to Anstie, the ore was being successfully 
worked in 1873, in spite of the distance it had to be carted. In 
1880 East and West Harp tree yielded 100 tons. Temple Cloud 
produced some ore in 1875, 186 tcms in 1876, and '6'6 tons in 
l877. Wookey yielded 150 tons in 1887. Clifton Crescent 
produced 3,800 tons and Nunney 800 tons in 1874, and an 
unspecified quantity in 1875. Wick was productive in 1893, and 
the Higher Pits {Y near Wells) in 1891-3. Lastly, since 1893 
sundry openworks and quarries (not specified) have produced 
17,862 tons, much of this probably being paint-ore, containing 
about 34 per cent, of iron, from the Winford district. No 
haematite has been raised in the Bristol District for some years. 

There is little doubt that the mining of these ores for iron- 
making dates back to E-oman time. According to Anstie, the 
chief obstacles to the use of the ores from Frampton Cottrell and 
Iron Acton were difficulties with the water and the siliceous 
character of the ore. The latter proved insurmountable in the 
case of the Winford ore. 

The oi-es were in some cases smelted at the Ashton Yale furnaces 
near Bristol; some probably went to South Wales. 

The Winford Iron Ore and Redding Company's mine being the 
only one raising iron oxide in 1917, tnis was visited in August of 
that year, the details being given below. 

DETAILS OF MINES 

RjsD House Mine, Winji'gkd 
Winford Iron Ore and Redding Company, Limited, Chew Magna, Bristol 

Openworks at Heath Hill, three-quarters of a mile S.S.W. of 
Winford, 6 miles S.W. of Bristol. Nearest railway-stations : 
Pensford (G.W.H.), 6 miles east by road, and Flax Bourton 
(G.AV.R.), 5 miles N.N.W. by road. 

Maps: One-inch New Ser. Ordnance, 264; Old Ser. 
Geological, 19,; six-inch, Somerset 11 S.E. Lat. 51° 22' 12". 
Long. 2° 40' 10". 

The ore occurs apparently in the Dolomitic Conglomerate. The 
mine is worked solely for red and yellow iron oxides (reddle, 
redding, or ruddle), for use as pigments. The red oxide is, how- 
ever, accompanied by small masses of hard siliceous haematite 
of a purple-red colour. These are thrown aside and collected into 
heaps, but not many tons have accumulated although the output 
of ochre has been going on for years. 

An analysis of the haematite, made by Dr. Cook, of Clifton, 
(1st July, 1903), showed 25-21 to 32-4 per cent, of silica, and 2-7 
to 12-1 of barium sulphate. 

At various times attempts have been made to turn the haematite 
to account for smelting purposes, but owing to its high percentage 
of silica these attempts have all ended in failure. Under tiie 
regime of the Winford Haematite Company, about 1872, consign- 
ments of the ore were sent to the Ashton Vale furnaces, Bristol, 
and also to the Westbury furnaces in Wilts, to be smelted with 
low-grade ores, but without success. About 1882 further 
experiments were made at Landore, near Swansea, and at Pelsall, 
in South Staffordshire^ with like results. Later still, a syndicate. 



WEST SOMERSET AND NORTH DEVON 31 

prepared to deal with highly siliceous ores, obtained no better 
results. It is clear, therefore, that as a source of iron-ore the 
mine is useless, as the quantity thrown out is negligible, even if 
the quality were satisfactory. The same conclusion doubtless 
applies to the smaller mines that have till recently raised reddle 
in the immediate vicinity, none of which has produced any iron- 
ore for many years. 

West Somerset and North Devon 

This district includes a few small mines of red hseAatite near 
Minehead and the more important mines of the Brendon and 
Eisen Hills, Exmoor, North Molton, Barnstaple and Ilfracombe, 
which, though yielding in most cases spathic ore in depth, 
produced brown hsematite at the surface. Except in the Exmoor 
and North Molton districts the iron-mining industry is dormant 
or extinct. 

MINEHEAD DISTRICT 

One-inch New Semes Map 278 

Red haematite was raised many years ago from the Triassic 
rocks of Porlock, Luccombe (Luckham) and Wootton Courtney, 
on the coast of the Bristol Channel. It occurs as a concentration 
in the beds of red ferruginous sandstone and conglomerate. 
De la Beche^ describes the ore in these red rocks as being so 
abundant that it was in some localities quarried, and exported 
from Minehead and Porlock to the ironworks in South Wales 
and Monmouthshire. 

The openworks were situated both west and east of Luccombe, 
and at Brock well (Sheet 294), and are marked on the Old Series 
Geological Map 20, surveyed in 1834 and revised in 1839. The 
mine west of Luccombe falls within the six-inch map, Somerset 
34 N.W.; that to the east, and the one at Brockwell, within 
Somerset 34 S.E. 

BRENDON HILLS 

These hills, which are situated about G miles south of Minehead, 
reach an elevation of from 1,200 to 1,400 ft. above the sea 
and extend in a direction bearing a littlo north of west. The 
crest of the upland is followed by a good road, and until recently 
was served by a mineral railway from Watchet, the most 
convenient point of approach. The ironstone-mines, all now 
abandoned, occur at intervals along the crest of the hills for 
about 7 miles, from Yeanon Mine in the east to Lancecombe in 
the west (Fig. 4, p. 32). 

They lie in the Old Series one-inch Geological Map, Sheet 20; 
in the New Series one-inch Ordnance Sheet 294 (Dulverton), and 
in the six-inch maps Somerset 59 N.W., 58 N.E., 58 N.W., 
47 S.W., and 46 S.E. 



^ ' Rt'port on Gfology of Cm'nwall. Devon, and West Somerset ' (Mem. Oed. 
Sun:), 1839, pp. 196-7,"617 ; ako Mem. Oeol. Survey, vol. i, 18-46, p. 264. 

C2 



32 



I'NUKDDKD IKON' ORES 






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WEST SOMEESET AND NORTH DEVON 33 

Geological Conditions 

The mines have been described in considerable detail by 
Morgans and others/ from whose papers the following particulars 
are mainly compiled. The country-rock consists of Devonian 
shales and sandstones more or less aifected by slaty cleavage, 
the colours being red, yellow, and pale-green. The slate 
associated with the lodes is usually blue or green. Several bands 
of limestone are shown on the Geological Survey Map, and a few 
dips are marked, generally in a southward direction, along the 
mining district. The angle of dip is said by Morgaru to be 30° 
or 40°. The cleavage is recorded by the same writer as dipping 
S. by W. at 40O-80O. On the Survey Map (published in 1834) 
the occurrence of ironstone is not indicated, except that, west of 
the Brendon Hills, at Eiseu Hill (N. of Wiusford), the symbol 
for iron-ore is engraved. 

The ore is not a stratified deposit, but is contained in true 
fissure-veins which, closely following the strike of the cleavage 
of the country-rock, range E. 10° S. and W. 10° N., and dip 
towards S. 10° W. at 50°-T0°. There is reason to believe that 
there is more than one vein ; for while some of the mines fall 
into line as if on one vein, others are out of line, and are 
presumably situated on parallel or branch veins. These branches 
may unite and continue as a single vein. 

The main veins extend for several miles, but for the greater 
part of the distance are barren. The ore is contained in 
productive pockets, which vary from a few yards to 100 fathoms 
in length and from a few inches to nearly 30 ft. in thickness. 
In the case of Raleigh's Cross Mine two lodes aggregated 27 ft, 
in thickness. In places the pockets are close together; elsewhere 
they are more than a mile apart; in all cases they are connected 
by a vein-track of soft clay-slate, quartz and threads of ore. The 
depth to which the pockets descend from the surface has not 
been ascertained. Collins records that in 1873 Gupworthy Old 
Mine had reached a depth of 1,000 ft. 

The ore in depth appears to consist of chalybite (FeCOj) 
containing a large propoiiion of manganese, presumably as 
dialogite (MnCOg); but near and at the surface it has been con- 
verted into maugauiferous limonite and hsematite, with which 
gothite, psilomelane and manganite are associated. Quartz 
forms a layer on the footwall. Commercially, the ore was raised 
as ' white ore,' i.e. spathic, generally crystalline, and * red ore,' 
i.e. the decomposed spathic. Intermediate varieties were known 
as 'brown ore,' 'black ore' and 'potty ore'; these were dark 
brown and generally more or less cellular. In regard to grade 
of size, some of the ore was known as ' rocky,' the rest being 

^ Morgan Morgans, ' The Brcncl^n Hills Sjmthose Iron Oi*e, and Mines.' Trans. 
South Wales Inst. Eng., vol. vi. 18G8-9, pp. 78-122. 

Wariiigton W. Smyth, ' On the Iron-Ores of Exmoor.' Quart. Journ. Geol. 
Soc., vol. XV, 1859, pp. 105-9. 

J. H. Ci)llins, ' Observations on the West of England Mining Region,' 8vo, 
Plymouth, 1912, pp. 270-272. 423. 

Morgan Morgans, ' On a Peculiarity of the Brendon Hills Spathose-Iron 
Ore vfiiis.' Quart. Journ. Gcol. Soc.. vol. xxv. 1869, pp. 255-6. 



34 TJNBEDDED lEON ORES 

' sandy.' Tlie specific gravity^ of the red ore varied from 372 
to 4-45 ; that of the white ore from 3-61 to 3-74. 

The following analysis of a sample of spathic ore from the 
Brendou Hills was published by Percy^ in 1864 : — 



Protoxide of iron 

S squioxide of iron 

Protoxide of manganese 

Lime 

Magnesia ... 

Carbonic acid 

Water 

Ignited insol. residue 



43-84 
0-81 

12-64 
0-28 
3-63 

38-86 
0-18 
0-08 



100-32 
Iron, metallic 34-67 

According to Smyth^ this sample was obtained from Goosemoor. 

There is little doubt that the ores of the Brendon Hills were 
worked by the Romans, whose coins have been found in some 
of the workings. Large beds of slag show that at some time 
the ore was smelted locally with charcoal, and at several of the 
mines, e.g. at Colton, Raleigh's Cross, Roman, Carew, Barrow 
Farm, Withiel Hill, Smallcombe Bottom, and Kennisham Hill, 
ancient shallow workings on the veins have been discovered, some 
of which may be of mediaeval date. 

The modern period of activity opened about the year 1851. 
According to Morgans the presence of specimens of minerals 
among the old crop-workings led a Mr. Tibbets, a Cornishman, 
to drive an adit at Gupworthy for copper. The adit failed to 
prove copper, but cut a lode of pure undecomposed spathic iron- 
ore at 20 fathoms. Specimens from Gupworthy comparing favour- 
ably with some Continental spathic ores that were exhibited at the 
Exhibition of 1851, the discovery was brought to the notice 
of the Ebbw Vale Company, who at once commenced working 
the mine. 

Collins gives a different account. According to him spathic 
ore was found about 1848 at Raleigh's Cross by a Mr. Blackwell, 
and it was this discovery that led to the Ebbw Vale Company 
taking up the matter. Development rapidly followed, and most 
of the mines were opened up between 1854 and 1867. After 
being abandoned by the Ebbw Vale Company about 1883, a recent 
attempt to reopen the mines was made by the Somerset Minerals 
Syndicate, Limited, about 1908, under a Mr. Smith, whose 
activities were mainly directed to the driving of a deep level 
from the head of the Washford Valley at Timwood southward 
towards the old Carew Mine near Raleigh's Cross. Begun in 
1909, it was hoped that this level would intersect the lodes 
formerly worked at Colton ; but nothing of importance having 
been struck, the work was abandoned after having reached a length 
of about 530 j'ards. About the same time several of the old mines 
were reopened, the Teanon Mine by a Mr. Raymond Byrne in 

1 Morgans, oi.\ cii. 

2 John Percy', ' Metallurgy : Iron and Steel,' 8vo, London, 1864, pp. 210, 227. 
* Qtiart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xv, 1859, pp. i05, 108. 



WEST SOMERSET AND NOJITH PEVON 



35 



1907, and the Colton mine bj Mr. Smith, but they were soon 
abandoned. 

The ore was won generally by slants or slopes, which more or 
less closely followed the lode downwards from the surface. From 
the slopes levels were driven eastwards and westwards in the lode 
at various depths. The ore was pulled up in tubs on rails, and 
water was raised by pumps. In several cases day-levels, driven 
oross-measure, were used to reach the ore, as at Colton and 
Bearland Wood. The chief obstacles to a large output were the 
occasional serious development of quartz, the dissemination of 
quartz in the ore, and the lenticular character of the veins. 

The Mineral Statistics of the Geological Survey up to 1881, 
and their continuation by the Home Office to the present day, 
give the outputs of ore from the Brendon Hills and Eisen Hill 
jointly, as below: — 



Out;put of the Brendon 

Year. Tons. 

1855 4,940* 

1856 7,620* 

1857 9,642 

1858 19,018 

1859 23,183 

1860 18,072 

1861 23,787 

1862 29,321 

1863 32,209 

1864 36,385 

1865 27,541 

1866 29,468 

1867 32,524 

1868 27,925 

1869 23,458 

1870 14,603 



Hills and Eisen Hill. 

Year. Tons. 

1871 27,556 

1872 27,913 

1873 28,982 

1874 38,316 

1875 41,792 

1876 41,351 

1877 46,894 

1878 40,115 

1879 14,100 

1880 27,668 

1881 26,265 

1882 31,354 

1883 10,081 

1908 2,550 

1909 920 



765,553 



Total 
* Including Exmoor. 

The output for 1908 was produced by the Somerset Minerals 
Syndicate, Limited, and the ore is said to have contained 55 per 
cent, of iron. The ore raised in 1909 was produced from the 
Colton Mine by the Watchet Briquetting Syndicate, Limited, 
and contaijied 44-2 per cent, of iron. 

The value of the 27,008 tons of ore raised from the Brendon 
Hills mines in 1880 was £22,134 8s., or 10s. a ton. 

The lenticular and impersistent character of the lodes renders 
any estimate of reserves a matter of great uncertainty. Morgans, 
writing in 1808, after 9 years' experience in developing the mines 
under the Ebbw Vale Company, estimated that 12 million tons 
of good clean ore were procural)le within a dej)th of 300 fathoms 
below the surface. Deducting the subsequent output (443,918 tons 
fur 1809 to 1909, inclusive) as given in the Mineral Statistics, we 
have about 11| million tons as reserve. 

The ore was transported by the West Somerset Mineral Railway 
to Watchet Harbour for shipment to Newport, its destination being 
the Ebbw Vale Company's works at Ebbw Vale, Mon. The line 
was partly made about 1855 to deal with the group of mines 
at Brendon Hill (Kaleigh's Cross and Carnarvon), and in 1804 



36 UXBEDDED IRON ORES 

was extended to Gupworthy to relieve the more westerly mines. 
Until a few years ago a passenger service was run ; but in 
September, 1917, the line was being dismantled. 

Notes on the Mines 
In the following notes the mines are mentioned in order from 
east to west, and are numbered as in Fig. 4, p. 32. Most of 
them are shown on the six-inch Ordnance Maps. The authority 
for most of the mining details is the invaluable paper read by 
Morgans in 1868, and already quoted. 

1. Yeanon or Elworthy Mine. — Three furlongs east of Yeanon 
Farm. Six-inch Somerset 59 N.W. Lat. 51° 5' 31". Long. 
3° 20' 6". 

A slant, with an air-shaft 120 yards west of it. Not mentioned 
by Morgans in 1868. Referred to (under the name Halworthy) 
by Collins, in 1873, as at work and as 100 ft. deep.^ The ore 
was carted to the top of the Comberow incline for 2s. 9d. a ton» 
After having been long closed the slant was cleaned out to a 
depth of 180 ft. by Raymond Byrne about 1907, but nothing 
further was done. The slant is now filled in. 

2. Colton Mine.— Kho\xi half a mile S.S.W. of Colton Farm, 
Six-inch Somerset 58 N.E. Level: Lat. 51° 6' 25"; Long, 
3° 21' 24". Main shaft: Lat. 51° 6' 17"; Long. 3° 21' 7". 

A day-level, driven E. 30° S. from the brook-side in Galloping 
Bottom, with a main shaft (the Colton Pit) 500 yards to the 
south-east on higher ground. There is also an air-shaft. The 
level passed the main shaft at a depth of 180 ft., the shaft 
itself being deeper. Smith reopened the level and worked it 
for about 3 years (1907-10), raising about 2,000 tons of ore, of 
which a consignment of 400 tons was sent to furnaces at Maryport 
with satisfactory results. The level yields much water. The 
vein is said to be double. The upper lode, which is separated 
from the lower by a few feet of country-rock, is soft and of 
inferior quality to the lower lode, which is blue and massive. 

In Smith's time the ore was pulled up from the level-moutk 
to the higher ground on the south by an inclined plane, and 
conveyed thence to the top of the Comberow incline at Brendon 
Hill by a narrow-gauge railway laid alongside the main road. 

The Colion mine described by Morgans in 1868 appears to have 
been situated in another combe, 600 yards to the south-east (in 
the six-inch Ordnance Sheet, Somerset 59 N.W.), where ancient 
open workings, over 500 yards in length, had long been known 
(2a on Fig. 4, p. 32). About 1865 the Ebbw Yale Company drove 
several day-levels from the brook-side south-westward and cut 
the lode at the bottom of the old workings, about 100 ft. below 
the surface. No. 1 level followed the lode for b\ chains north- 
westward and found both 'hard' and 'soft' ore. 

The veins worked at Colton lie three-quarters of a mile north, 
of that worked at Yeanon, and are presumably different, unless 
that vein has been thrown out of course by folding or by faulting. 

3. Roman Mine. — ^At the head of Tripp Bottom, about 
1,100 yards S.E. of Raleigh's Cross Inn. Somerset 58 N.E. 
Approximate Lat. 51° 6' 43". Long. 3° 21' 40". 

1 Unless otherwTse stated, the depths are vertical depths and are not |measured 
down the slant or slope, which would give a larger figure. 



WEST SOMERSET AND NORTH DEVON 6T 

There were some small ancient workings here, but modern 
mining had only recently been begun when Morgans wrote in. 
1868. He records that the ore had been traced in the bed of a 
stream. 

4. Careiv Mine. — About 450 yards S.W. of Raleigh's Cross Inn. 
Somerset 58 N.E. Lat. 51° 5' 52". Long. 3° 22' 35". 

There were some ancient workings here. The mine was re- 
opened a little prior to 1868, but Collins found it idle in 1873. 
Smith jntended his deep level from Timwood (p. 34) to cut this 
slope. 

5. Raleigh's Cross Mine. — At the hamlet of Brelidon HilL 
Adjacent to the south side of the Bampton Koad at the seventh 
milestone from Watchet. Called also Laurence Cross Mine. 
Somerset 58 N.E. Lat. 51° 5' 55". Long. 3° 23' 30". 

This was one of the first mines to be worked by the Ebbw 
Vale Company, and has been opened up to a greater extent than 
the others. In 1858 the slope, which descends at an angle of 
50° from the horizontal, had reached a vertical depth of 94 ft^ 
from the surface. By 1867 it had reached a vertical depth of 
381 ft. with 17 levels. Collins gives its depth in 1873 as 800 ft.. 
In this mine the lode divided into several branches, two of which 
near No. 10 levels aggregated 27 ft. in thickness and consisted 
entirely of brown ' potty ' ore. The red ore found at the surface 
gradually changed at a depth into dark-brown potty ore with 
gothite, which in turn became subordinate to white ore below 
140 ft. from the surface. Smyth gives 2 to 20 ft. as the thick- 
ness of the lode, and 45° as its dip, increasing in the western 
part of the mine to 65°. In the footwall a quartz-rib 3 to 6 ft. 
thick entirely excludes the ore in places. 

6. Carnarvon Old Mine. — At Brendon Hill. About 300 yards- 
west of Raleigh's Cross Mine, and a few yards east of the top 
of the railway incline. Somerset 58 N.E. Lat. 51° 5' 55 . 
Long. 3° 23' 48". 

This mine is connected by a heading with Raleigh's Cross Mine. 
It appears to have been abandoned in 1866 on the opening of 
the Carnarvon New Mine. Collins found it idle in 1873. 

7. Carnarvon New Mine. — At Brendon Hill. About 250 vards. 
west of the Carnarvon Old Mine, and a little west of the railway 
incline. Somerset 58 N.E. Lat. 51° 5' 56". Long. 3° 23' 58'. 

A slope, still open, going in S. 10° W. at 60°, and said by 
Collins to be 400 ft. deep. Red and yellow shales are exposed 
at the mouth. The workings were connected with Carnarvon 
Old Mine and Raleigh's Cross by the heading mentioned above. 
The slope appears to have been commenced in 1866 and the lode 
proved to be very thick. Cavities in the potty ore enclosed masses 
of white ore weighing from 1 cwt. to 2 or 3 tons. 

8. Barrow Farm it/Znc— About 300 yards N.E. of Barrow 
(Burrow) Farm. Somerset 58 N.E. Lat. 51° 6' 2". Long. 
3° 24' 59". 

A sl()])e (filled in), ancient crop works, and an engine-house 
and chimney mark the site. The slope is said to be 150 ft. 
deep. Apparently the mine was disused by the time Morgans 
wrote in 1868. There are indications of two other slopes a little 
farther east. The lode on reaching this place from the Carnarvon 



38 UNBEDDED IRON ORES 

mines bifurcated, its thickness at tlie fork being 18 ft. The 
ore was hard, and red and blue in colour. 

9. WitJiiel Hill Mine. — Presumably the same as Florey Hill 
Mine. About 550 yards S.E. of Leather Barrow. Somerset 
68 N.W. Lat. 51° 6' 20". Long. 3° 26' 28". 

Opened as a slope by Morgans about 1867. There were ancient 
workings about 30 ft. deep, below which the ore was found to 
be generally very hard and red, but some was soft and contained 
hard concretions of bluish ore. Apparently idle in 1873. 

Immediately south of Leather Barrow, Morgans's maps show 
a string of ancient openworks about 600 yards long on a vein — 
here apparently ranging 350 yards north of, and parallel to, that 
worked at the Withiel Hill Mine. Farther west, also, the 
Loathbrook, Langham Hill, Bearland Wood and Kennisham Hill 
mines, ranged along the vein worked at Leather Barrow, lie 400 to 
600 yards north of, and parallel to, those worked at Smallcombe 
Bottom, Gupworthy and California. This may be a development 
of the bifurcation noticed at Barrow Farm. 

10. Loathbrook Mine. — On the north of the main road, near 
its junction with the branch road to Luxborough. There was 
a slope in the north-eastern angle between these roads, and a level 
350 yards W.N.W. of the junction. Somerset 47 S.W. Slope : 
Lat. 51° 6' 32"; Long. 3° 26' 53". Level : Lat. 51° 6' 36"; Long. 
3° 27' 8". 

Said by Collins to be 300 ft. deep in 1873. 

11. Betsey Mine. — A slope 170 yards west of Withiel Bridge 
(on the railway), 1\ miles N. of Withiel Florey. Somerset 
58 N.W. Lat. 51° 6' 29". Long. 3° 27' 2". 

12. STnallcomhe (Smoky) Bottom Mine. — About half a mile 
N. by E. of Ford Farm. There was a slope, and a level 170 yards 
S. by W. of the slope. Somerset 58 N.W. Slope : Lat. 51° 6' 25" ; 
Long. 3° 27' 34". Level : Lat. 51° 6' 20"; Long. 3° 27' 36". 

Said locally to have been overpowered by water. Shown on 
Morgans's map, but not mentioned by Collins. The lode, which 
was thin, was worked to a slight depth by the level and slope, 
and was afterwards reached by a cross-measure drift from the 
Bearland Wood No. 2 adit. It yielded soft red ore. 

13. Langham Hill Mine. — On the north side of the main road, 
about 1,000 yards west of the branch-road to Luxborough. Called 
also the Bearland Wood Engine-drift. Somerset 47 S.W. Lat. 
61° 6' 36". Long. 3° 27' 40". 

A slope 480 ft. deep (measured along the slope) and inclined 
at 52° from the horizontal. Begun in January, 1866, to reach 
the deeper ore previously worked by No. 2 Bearland Wood (p. 39). 
The Langham Hill slope thus commanded an extensive range of 
the two lodes (Leather Barrow and Florey Hill) and linked up 
the workings at Bearland Wood, Loathbrook and Smallcombe 
Bottom. The upper part of the slope is in dead ground, the 
ore not having been struck till a depth of 260 ft. was reached. 
White and red ores were worked. 

14. Bearland Wood Mine. — In the wooded valley (Chargot 
Wood) between Langham Hill and Kennisham Hill. Somerset 
47 S.W. Approximate Lat. 51° 6' 45". Long. 3° 27' 56." 



WEST SOMERSET AND XOKTH DEVON 39 

Apparently two cross-measure drifts, close together, were 
carried from the valley to intersect the lode. No, 1 (on the west) 
worked the lode uud was carried beyond it for exploration 
purposes, but stopped in 1864. Several strings of ore up to 6 in. 
thick were cut. A branch adit was carried cross-measure towards 
Gupworthy to drain the lode worked there. 

No. 2 (on the east) was begun 45 it. lower than No. 1, and 
intersected the lode previously worked by No. 1 ; from it headings 
driven eastwards in the vein proved it to be good, over 12,000 
tons of soft red ore being raised. Subsequently the Langham 
Hill slope (p. 38) was sunk to win the ore at greater,«iepths than 
could be reached by No. 2 drift. 

15. Baker's Mine. — A slant adjacent to the south side of the 
railway, 780 yards east of Gupworthy Station on the Dulverton 
branch road, at the end of the mineral railway. The mine is 
350 yards N.N.W. of Gupworthy Farm. Somerset 58 N.W. 
Lat. 51° 6' 23". Long. 3^ 28' 25". 

16. Gupworthy Old Mine. — Adjacent to the north side of the 
railway, 480 yards east of Gupworthy Station. Somerset 58 N.W. 
Xat. 51° 6' 26". Long. 3° 28' 35". 

Opened about the middle of the 19th century, and apparently 
■one of the earliest of the local spathic mines. The ore was won 
by a slant inclined at 70° from the horizontal. In 1873 the depth 
was 1,000 ft. A considerable portion of the lode was 20 ft. thick 
and large quantities of white ore were raised from it by the 
Ebbw Vale Company. Westwards the lode split, and in the 
southern branch soft red, potty, and white ore were all found. 
Small quantities of copper pyrites were occasionally observed in 
this mine. There was also a level (Gupworthy Level) by the 
brook-side 300 yards south of the slope. 

17. G upworthy Aeiv Mine. — Situated about 420 y6,rds west of 
the old mine, and 150 yards south of Gupworthv Station. 
Somerset 58 N.W. Lat. 51° 6' 28". Long. 3° 28' 54". 

Said by Collins to be 300 ft. deep in 1873. There were old 
•crop-works on a lode (called by Morgans the Cutcombe Barrow 
lode) intermediate in position between that at Gupworthy and 
that at Kennisham Hill. The lode runs between Cutcombe 
Barrow and the main road, and Morgans 's map indicates that, 
west of the Dulverton road, trial-pits sunk on this lode in 
Goosemoor Plantation by the B.H.I.O. Company [Barrow 
Haematite Iron Ore Company?] found ore 2| ft. thif^k at 15 ft. 
depth. 

18. Kentiisluim Hill Mine. — At Kennisham Hill, about 200 yds. 
N.W. of the junction of the main road with the Dulverton road. 
Somerset 47 S.W. Lat. 51° 6' 50". Long. 3° 28' 54". 

An(dently the lode was worked on the crop at intervals for 
about a mile. In the operations of the Ebbw Vale Company the 
ore was won by three drifts, none of which went far below the 
surface. An old engine-house and chimney still survive at the 
western end of the workings, where the debris on the tips contains 
small fragments of green copper ore. The nockets of iron-ore 
ran unusually straight, and yielded only red and brown ores, 
which were much mixed with softened killas. This fart and the 



40 UNBEDDED IRON OHES 

soft condition of the walls proved detrimental to the mine. The 
main lode is said to have been 16 ft. thick. 

19. California Mine. — Apparently on the same vein as that 
worked at Gup worthy. The mine is not shown on Morgans' s 
plan, but a vein is indicated at ' Higher Goosemoor,' and the 
mine may be identical with one referred to by Morgans and known 
locally as the Goosemoor Mine. About 800 yards west of 
Gupworthy Station. Somerset 46 S.E. Lat. 51° 6' 33". Long. 
3° 29' 33". 

The mine, which had not been far developed in Morgans's time, 
yielded soft, clean, red ore. According to the same authority, na 
ore of any importance had been found west of this on the 
Brendon Hills. 

20. Lancecombe or Lanescombe Mine. — Mentioned by Collins- 
as 200 ft. deep in 1873. Probably a trial-shaft shown on Somerset 
46 S.E., 800 yards west of the California Mine and 550 yards 
south-east of the site of Lancecombe cottage. Lat. 51° 6' 33". 
Long. 3° 30' 10". 

EISEN HILL 

Some 3 miles west of the mines on the Brendon Hills, and 
forming a link between them and the Exmoor mines, lies the 
group of disused workings at Eisen Hill,^ a mile north of the 
village of Winsford. The hill rises to a heierht of 1,161 ft., 
between the River Quarme on the east and Larcombe Brook (a 
tributary of the Exe) on the west, and lies midway between. 
Dunster and Dulverton. 

On Morgans's plan ancient crop- workings are shown about 
500 yards in length, ranging westward across the hill and ending^ 
on the west at the road to Winsford [from Aldworthy]- The only 
sources of information appear to be the works of Smyth (1859), 
Morgans (1'868), and Collins (1912K already cited (p. 33). 

The workings extend westward at intervals for 1,600 yards up 
Eisen Hill from the side of the River Quarme at Honeywell to 
a little beyond the summit, where they end, a little beyond Ison. 
Lane, at a point midway between Aldworthy and East Nurcott 
Farms. The ground falls within the New Series one-inch 
Ordnance Map 294 (Dulverton), and in Sheet 20 of the Geological 
Survey Map, surveyed in 1834 and partly revised in 1839. The 
six-inch maps concerned are Somerset 46 S.E. and S.W., on 
which the old mine and its shafts are shown. Poorsland Level : 
Lat. 51° 7' 18". Long. 3° 33' 2". Holecombe Levels: Lat. 
51° 7' 22". Long. 3° 33' 26". 

The geological conditions and the characters of the veins are 
much the same as at the Brendon Hills, the veins worked at Eisen 
Hill being the westward continuation of those worked at Kennisham. 
Hill (p. 39). According to Smyth, the lodes range W. by N. 
and E. by S., and dip southwards at 60°. They are, however, 
lenticular in places, being pinched up to a few inches and then 
rapidly opening out to 8 ft. in thickness. 

1 Spfelt ' Eyeson ' on the Ordnance map of 1 809 ; not named on the one -inch 
New Series Map (Sheet 294) of 1894. Spelt ' Ison ' on the six-inch maps of 1903-4, 
and ' Eisen ' by Morgans and by CoUins. It is tempting to accept Smyth's 
suggestion that the latter speUing is correct, and derives from the activities of 
some immigrant miners of German origin temp. Eliz. 



WEST SOMERSET AND NORTH DEVON 41 

The veins yielded excellent brown ore of the variety called 
pitchy ore [eisenpecherz), with some crystalline limonite, 
psilomelane and manganite. Little white ore was found. 

The first exploitation, according to Morgans, was by shallow 
crop-works, and it was presumably these which led to the presence 
of iron-ore being indicated at this spot on the Geological Survey 
Map of 1834-9. Later there were levels known as the Office 
Levels, which by 1868 had been long abandoned. The Hoecombe 
or Holecombe Levels (Xos. 1 and 2) opened high up on the 
eastern side of tlie hill, and not far under the ancient workings, 
and had won some valuable pockets before 1868. Poor^land Level 
(Ison Iron Mine of the six-inch map) entered the eastern foot 
of the hill by the side of the Quarme, and 294 ft. lower than 
Hoecombe No. 2, with the purpose of intersecting the lodes at 
a greater depth. The lode proving to be more productive, the 
workings were connected, and much ore raised, mainly of the 
potty brown variety. 

EXMOOR DISTRICT 

About 4 miles west of Eisen Hill the Exmoor district begins 
with some old workings near Withypool on the River Barle. 
The veins are apparently the westward extension of those worked 
on the Eisen and Brendon Hills. The only source of information 
respecting these lodes is the paper, published in 1859, by Smyth, ^ 
who speaks of the exploration of the veins as having received 
much att-eution during the previous seven years, i.e. 1852-8, about 
the time that the mines on the Brendon Hills were being opened 
up. Some of the old mines are shown on the six-inch Ordnance 
maps. The most easterly of the workings appear to be those of 
the mine at Higher Blackland or Halsgrove, a mile north-west 
of Withypool. As this mine seems to have been active at a 
later period than some of the others, it was visited on 
6th September, 1917, and is described below. 

Higher Blackland Mine, Withypool 

Shaft and adit on Higher Blackland Farm, a mile N.W. of 
Withypool, 6 miles N.W. of Dulvertou. Nearest railway-station : 
East Anstey (G.W.R., Devon and Somerset Branch), about 
8 miles S.S.E. by road. 

One-inch New Series Ordnance Maj), 294 (Dulverton) ; Old 
Series Geological, 20; six-inch Somerset 45 S.E. Lat. 51*^ 7' 8". 
Long. 3° 39' 22". 

The ore occurs in Devonian rocks presumably in a similar 
manner to that of the Brendon Hills (p. 33). The adit is driven 
westward from the side of the Pennycombe Water for about 
200 yards to a shaft sunk on higher ground. According to local 
information tlie mine, which is sometimes known as the Halsgrove 
Mine, was working over 30 years ago, and at one time was owned 
by tlie Exfoid Iron ( )re Company. It was abandoned through the 
competition with Spanish hsematite. 

The falling-in of the shaft has blocked the adit. At the time 
of our visit (September, 1917) the old dump contained several 
hundred tons of ore. 

* ' On the Iron-ores of Exmoor." Quart. Journ. Oed. Soc., vol. xv, 1859, 
pp. 105-109. 



42 UNBEDDED IRON ORES 

Other places and mines where iron-ore has been raised in the^ 
Exmoor district are as follows ; most of them lie between Withypool 
and Simonsbath : — 

One-inch New Series Maf 294 (Dulverton) 

An old unnamed iron-mine, with shaft and adit, two-thirds of 
a mile S.W. of Newland (1^ miles W. of Exford). Marked on. 
Somerset 45 S.E. Lat. 51" 7' 28". Long. 3° 41' 8". 

Little Woolcombe. — Possibly Woolcombe Earm, 3 miles 
W.S.W. of Withypool. Somerset 56 N.W. According to Smyth, 
haematite was obtained here from near the surface of some veins- 
It exhibited small crystals of specular ore, but had the structure 
of spathic. 

Honeymead. — Probably the farm so named, 3^ miles W. by N. 
of Exford and 1^ miles E. of Simonsbath. Somerset 45 N.W. 
Lat. 51° 8' 46". Long. 3° 42' 10". Sold 500 tons of spathic ore 
in 1858 for £250. The six-inch map shows an old quarry and 
air-shaft about a mile north-east of Honeymead Earm, and these 
may represent the mine. 

Exford. — A mine of this name, the site of which we have been^ 
unable to ascertain, raised 3,000 tons of spatTiic ore in 1874, but 
sold only 10 tons. In 1877 it had 1,000 tons of brown haematite 
in stock. Said by Collins to have been still working in 1879. 

One-inch New Series Map 293 (Barnstaple) 

Huel Eliza. — Situated on the south bank of the Hiver Barle^ 
a mile S.E. of Simonsbath. Somerset 45 S.W. Lat. 51° 7' 42". 
Long. 3° 44' 12". According to Smyth, the lode was worked some 
time prior to 1858 for copper-ore, but presented at depth a mass 
of sparry iron-ore with small disseminated portions of copper 
pyrites. 

The Deerpark, Simonsbath. — Situated a mile S.W. of Simons- 
bath. Somerset 44 S.E., on which several old iron-mines and 
old shafts are marked. Some of these were later known as the 
Exmoor Mine in 1910-13 {see below). Smyth records that 
numerous parallel lodes here yielded at the surface a large 
proportion of hsematite, particularly in the case of Rogers's lode. 
The main portion of their contents was brown or hydrous peroxide 
in a state of great purity, but having the general rhombohedraL 
structure of the spathic (carbonate) ore. The composition of the 
ore of Rogers's lode as analysed by Mr. Riley, of Dowlais, was. 
as follows : — 



Peroxide of iron 


71-34 


Peroxide of manganese 


16-79 


Silica 


1-49 


Alumina 


110 


Lime ... 


013 


Magnesia 


0-22 


Phosphoric acid 


0-33 


Combined water 


7-98 


Moisture 


0-79 


Oxides of nickel and cobalt 


0-19 


Oxide of copper 


0-05 




100-41 


[Iron, metallic 


49-938 



WEST SOMERSET AND NORTH DEVON 43 

Kogers's lode was 2 to l-j ft. thick, averaging probably 9 ft. 
It consisted of loosely agglomerated gothite with occasional bands 
of quartz and fragments of country-rock. 

Exmoor Mine. — Near Blue Gate, at the western end of the 
Deerpark, a mile south-west of Simonsbath. Somerset 44 S.E. 
Lat. about 51° 7' 34"; Long, about 3° 46' 12". Probably one 
of the old mines east of the main road and marked on the 
six-inch map, with other openings on Burcomb, west of the road. 
In 1910-13 the mine raised 1,700 tons of ore containing 55 to 
56 per cent, of iron. 

Hangley Cleave. — Situated 2 miles south-west of Simonsbath, 
on Somerset 44 S.E., on which an old iron-mine is shown. Smyth 
records that here a vein, 15 to 20 ft. thick, of botryoidal and 
cavernous brown ore, intermingled with quartz and slate, is 
* succeeded by ' [presumably passes downwards into] single 
nuclei at the depth of a few fathoms, and, still lower, masses of 
pale compact spathic ore. 

Cornham Ford. — On the River Barle, 1^ miles \\. by S. of 
Simonsbath. Somerset 44 S.E., on which an old shaft is marked 
half a mile south.-€ast of the ford. According to Smyth, the 
conditions here resemble those at Little Woolcombe, noted above. 
An analysis, by Mr. Riley, of ore from the Roman Lode, Cornham 
Ford, is as follows : — 



Peroxide of iron 

Silica 

Oxide of manganese 

Magnesia 

Phosphoric acid 

Moisture 

Oxide of copper 



98-41 
101 
0-29 
016 
012 
013 
04 



Nickel and alumina ... ... ... ... ... trace 



10016 



[Iron, metallic 68887] 

Hoar Oak. — Situated 3 miles north-west of Simonsbath, on 
Somerset 32 S.E. According to Smyth, the veins here resemble 
those of the Deerpark, noted above. 

The output from the Exmoor district is included in the Mineral 
Statistics of the Geological Survey and Home Office with that 
of the Brendon Hills for the years 1855 and 1856. In 1857 it 
was given separately as 15,000 tons of spathic ore. The next 
mention is in 1874, when Exford is said to have produced 3,000 
tons of spathic ore, but to have sold only 10 tons. In 1877 Exford 
had in stock 1,000 tons of brown haematite. Finally, Exmoor 
Mine in 1910 produced 250 tons of ore containing 56 jx^r cent, 
of iron; in 1911, 200 tons; in 1912, 400 tons; and in 1913, 850 
tons containing 55 per cent, of iron. It has since been idle. 

In most of these mines the difficulties of transport would be 
great, as the nearest railways lie (by road) in some cases 10 miles 
to the south-west (South Molton Station, G.W.R.) and 9 miles 
to the west (Blackmoor Station, Lynton and Barnstaple Railway). 
By these railways the ore could be carried to Barnstaple for 
shipment. The ore formerly raised was sent to South Wales. 



44 rXDEDDED IRON ORES 

NORTH MOLTON DISTRICT 

In the neighbourhood of North Molton, between Dulverton and 
Barnstaple, several mines have raised ironstone, apparently red 
.and brown haematites, with some spathic ore. The country-rock 
is described by Collins as consisting of nearly vertical brown and 
claret-coloured slates (Lower Devonian), striking east-and-west. 
The ore occurs in a copper-bearing belt of veinlets occupying 
lines of fracture. This metalliferous belt crosses the valley of 
the Mole about two miles north of North Molton. 

One-inch Kew Series Map 294 (Dulvekton) 
Molland or Brimley Mine. — Presumably at Brimley or 
Bremley, half a mile east of Molland, 7 miles west of Dulverton. 
As this mine lies 6 miles south-east of those on the cupriferous 
belt mentioned above, it may be situated on a different set of 
veins. The mine sold 11,735 tons of iron-ore in 1877-1887 for 
.£3,854, in addition to copper-ore. 

One-inch New Sekies Map 293 (Barnstaple) 

Two copper-mines are shown on the Old Series Geological 
Map 27 (published in 1835, revised in 1839) between North 
Heasley and South Radworthy, 2 miles north of North Molton. 
•On the six-inch map, Devon 15 N.W., the following are marked 
in the neighbourhood of Heasley Mill : — Bampf ylde Copper Mine, 
New Florence Mine, Crowbarn Iron Inline, Stowford Iron Mine, 
and iron-mines on Bampfylde Hill. 

Bamffylde Mine. — This mine sold 7,187 tons of iron-ore for 
£3,988 in 1873-84, and in 1870 was 110 fathoms deep. Some 
1,309 tons of brown haematite were sold in 1880 for £785. 

Florence Mine. — According to Meade, this mine yielded spathic 
ore with 55 per cent, of iron, and also haematite. The lodes, of 
which two were worked, dip at 62°, and vary from 4 to 13 ft. 
in thickness. The spathic ore appears to have had little sale, 
on account of its needing to be calcined; but at an earlier period 
(about 1872), when it was worth 20s. a ton, it was raised in some 
•quantity. In 1873 the mine produced 3,000 tons of spathic ore, 
and in 1874-85 sold 35,386 tons of iron-ore for £26,598. 

Stowford Mine. — This yielded 2,382 tons of red and brown 
haematite in. 1883-7. 

BARNSTAPLE DISTRICT 

One-inch New Series Map 293 (Barnstaple) 
Mines^ at Shirwell and Bratton Fleming, 5 miles north-east of 
Barnstaple, produced 40 tons of brown haematite in 1873, 
presumably from lodes in the Devonian Slates. Spraycombe Mine 
in 1874-76 and 1889 yielded 779 tons of similar ore. 

ILFRACOMBE DISTRICT 

One-inch New Series Map 277 (Ilfracombe) 
At Combe Martin, on the coast of the Bristol Channel and 
-4 miles east of Ilfracombe, iron-ores have been worked in the 

^ Meade, op. cit., p. 698. 



WEST SOMERSET AND NORTH DEVON 45 

Devonian Slates. According to Smytk^ the ore is a bedded 
deposit, and occurs in the form of small nodules; but as the 
beds are tilted at a high angle (to the south-south-west), the 
working of the ore was attended with much difficulty. De la 
Beche^ records, on the authority of Lysons, that between 1796 and 
1802 iron-ore to the amount of 9,293 tons was shipped from the 
lode near Combe Martin to the ironworks at Llanelly. He speaks 
of the ore as a ' lode.' On the Old Series Geological Map 27 the 
lode is represented as running east-south-eastward along the 
southern slope of Hangman Hill, for 2 miles, from the coast 
at Combe Martin Bay to Holstone Farm. ^ The ironstone raised 
was brown haematite and siliceous spathic ore. The Iron Ore 
Statistics give the following output: 1855, 1,190 tons of spathic 
ore; 1856, 400 tons of siliceous carbonate. A mine on the same 
lode at Challacombe raised 50 tons of brown haematite in 1873 ; 
another at Girt Down raised 400 tons of similar ore in 1873-4. 



' ' On the Iroii-Oirs of Exinoor,' Quart. Jourii. Gcol. Soc., vol. xv. 1859, p. 105. 

'''Roport oil Cleol. of Cornwall, Devon, and West Somor:>et ' (Mem Gcol 
iSurv.), 18.W, i.p. 017, 1.S8. 



D 



46 



CHAPTER V 

SOUTH DEVON AND CORNWALL 

By H. Dewey 

South Devon 

general account 

The iron-ore production of South. Devon is mainly confined 
to the neighbourhoods of Bovey Tracey and Brixham. 

In the Bovey Tracey district a small quantity of magnetite is 
raised at the Haytor Mine near Ilsingtou, and some little is 
derived from the adjacent Smallacombe Mine. At Lustleigh and 
Hennock the special form of haematite known as specular ore 
has long been raised (Eig. 5, p. 51). 

In the Brixham district red and brown haematites have been 
worked at a number of small mines, especially near Sharkham 
Point (Eig. 6, p. 53). 

The earliest mention of the working of these ores appears to 
be that made in 1839 by De la Beche/ who recorded that the 
iron-ore near Ilsington [probably the magnetite at Haytor] was 
once raised in considerable quantities, and that the micaceous ores 
of Dartmoor were sent to London as ' Devonshire Sand ' or 
'writing-sand.' He mentioned also the occurrence of haematite 
near Brixham. 

Magnetite. — This occurs habitually in a massive form, but 
occasionally good octahedral crystals up to a quarter of an inch 
in length are found in cavities. The masses are interstratified 
with the Carboniferous grits and shales (Culm Measures), which 
have been metamorphosed by the adjacent Dartmoor granite. 

Different opinions^ have been held as to the mode of origin 
of the Haytor magnetite. C. Le Neve Eoster and J. H. Collins 
claimed that it was a bedded ore, metamorphosed. D. A. 
MacAlister suggested pneumatolytic origin as an alternative 
explanation. 

From Haytor and Smallacombe about 30,000 tons of magnetite 
and haematite have been raised. In 1917 the output at the former 
amounted to some 800 tons, but this is likely to be increased as 
development proceeds. The reserves at Haytor appear to be 

1 ' Report on the Geologj- of Cornwall, Devon, and West Somerset ' {Mem. Geol. 
Surv.), 1839, pp. 617-8. 

2 Foster : 'Notes on Haytor Iron Mine,' Quart. Joum. Geol. 8oc., vol. xxxi, 
1875, p. 628. Collins : ' Observations on the West of England IVIining Region,' 
8vo, Plymouth, 1912, pp. 25-6. MacAlister : ' Note on the Association of Cas- 
siterite and Specular Iron in the Lodes of Dartmoor,' Ged. Mag., 1909, p. 402 ; 
and in ' Geology of Dartmoor ' (Mem. Geol. Surv.), 1912, pp. 74, 75, 79, 80. 



SOUTH DEVON 47 

sufl&cient for many years at the present rate of output. The ore 
is smelted in the Midlands. Meade mentions that early in the 
19th century it was mixed with clav-ironstone from South Wales. 
The average iron-percentage in the ore raised at that period 
was about 50. 

Specular Ore. — This forms hexagonal plates resembling mica 
in a])j)earance. It occurs in associaticm with certain minerals 
generally held to be of pneumatolytic origin, and the country- 
rock in which the lodes occur at Lustleigh and Hennock is a 
partly-mineralised granite. Further: as tl>3 similar specular ore 
at Birch Tor and Vitifer (7 miles west of Lustleigh) occurs along 
with cassiterite, the origin of the specular ore seems to be 
epigenetic. 

The ores occur in the form of narrow lodes, highly inclined 
or nearly vertical, and coursing practically east-and-west ; the 
thickness of the lodes ranges from a mere film up to 5 ft. 

The output from the Kelly and Great Rock mines averages 
400 tons a year, and the total amount raised since 1878 from these 
and neighbouring mines is about 2,500 tons. The ore is used^ 
for special classes of work only. Reserves in sight are believed 
to be sufficient to meet the prospective demand of many years. 

The ore was formerly known as ' Devonshire sand ' or ' writing- 
sand ' for use as pounce,- and was sent to London extensively, 
selling at £3 3s. Od. to £8 8s. Od. a ton. It is now used in the 
manufacture of ' non-corrosive ' paint for ships' bottoms, and 
as a lubricant. It is sold to the chemical works in Swansea and 
Cardiff, and is also exported. 

I\ed and Brown Haematites. — These ores are found in the 
massive earthy state and also as kidney-ore at Sharkham Point 
near Brixham. They form irregular bodies filling pockets and 
fissures in the Devonian limestone. 

From the group of mines at Sharkham Point the output of 
haematite from 1858 to 1875 was 160,000 tons, and between 1875 
and 1915 was still smaller. In 1917 it was approximately 4,000 
tons. The reserves, at the present rate of output, appear to be 
sufficient for some years. Most of the ore is sold for paint-makiug, 
but some is used for the manufacture of iron. 

Furnaces were erected some time prior to 1880 at Bovey Tracey^ 
for the reduction of the local ores, but were never put into 
operation; ore was exported mainly to South Wales, but partly 
to the North of England. 

The analyses behjw,' published bv Meade, show the composi- 
tion of some of the Devon ironstones : — 



^ J. S. Martiii, ' Micacooas Iron On-s, near Bovi*y Tracey,' Trans. Manchester 
Oeol. Soc., vol. xxiii, ISJU-.*}, p. 162. Several cargoes were, however, shipped to 
South Wales about 1870 for the iron furnaces. 

• R. N. Worth, Trans. Devon. Assoc., vol. vii, 1875, p. 225. 

^ R. Meatle, 'The Coal and Iron Industries of the United Kingdom,' 8vo, 
1882, p. 700. 

* Op. cit., pp. 689-695. 

d2 



48 



XJNBEDDED IRON OEES 



Analyses of Devon Ironstones 



1 


I. 1 II. 1 III. 


IV. V. 


VI. i VII. 1 


VIII. 




1 , 6 

■•S-S 1 ■■si 

9 b^ I OS V 

a- 1 w a 


ll 


is 


ia 
■■sl 

S.B 






•an 


Iron i)eroxide 

,, protoxide 

,, carbonate 

,, bisulphide 
Manganese peroxide 
„ protoxide 
,, oxdde ... 
„ carbonate 
Alumina 

Lime 

Calcium carbonate... 
Magnesia 
Magnesium carbonate 

Silica 

Siliceous matter 
Phosphorus 
Phosphoric acid 

Sulphur 

Sulphuric acid 
Lead sulphide 

Oxygen 

Carbonic acid 

Organic matter 

Combined water ... 

Moisture 

Ignited insol. residue 


62-20 
16-20 

0-07 

014 

2-28 
2-34 

0-37 

0-24 

0-10 

0-34 

0-28 

16-26 


41-96 
8-48 

1-20 
1-70 

trace 

10-15 

trace 

17-98 
9-09 

5-49 
4-83 


68-53 

14-40 

6-48 

7-40 
1-20 

1-80 


95-10 

4-15 
trace 

0-12 

0-49 
|o-14 


69-58 

14-38 
010 

0-15 

1-40 
14-39 


63-42 

0-24 
0-60 

35-20 

0-28 


90-00 1 

0-30 
0-42 

8-60 
0-38 


89-34 

trace 
0-33 

0-33 
0-33 

0-20 

013 
trace 

8-83 
1-70 


Totals 


100-82 


100-88 99-81 


100-00 


100-00 


99-74 


99-70 


10119 


Metallic iron in raw 

ore. 
Metallic iron in 

roasted ore. 


57-01 


50-44 38-26 
— 54-70 


66-57 


48-70 


44-56 


63-00 [61-80] 

i 



I. ' Magnetic oxide of iron, Dartmoor,' believed to be from Haytor. The 
' ignited insoluble residue ' consists of silica 9'42, alumina 1-53, protoxide of iron 
1 12, lime 3-18, magnesia 1-45, potash and soda 0-10; total 16-80. Traces of 
bismuth, tin, and copper were detected in 900 grains. Anal. Edward RUey, 
quoted by R. Meade, ' The Coal and Iron Industries of the United Kingdom,' 
8vo, 1882, p. 689. 

II. Brown haematite from Smallacombe. Anal. Mr. Child, Dowlais Ironworks, 
quoted by Meade {op. ciL, p. 691). 

III. Spathic ore from Frankmills. The 1-80 per cent, of lead sulphide equals 
0-23 of sulphur. Anal. Dr. Noad, quoted by Meade (op. cit., p. 693). 

IV and V. Hasmatites from Brixham. Anal. Dr. Odling, quoted by Meade 
(op. cit., p. 694). 

VI. Haematite from Brixham. Soft ore in form of fine powder. Siliceous 
and poor in iron. The 35-2 per cent, of sUiceous matter is 'insoluble sand.' 
Anal. Dr. Noad, quoted by Meade (op. cit., p. 694). 

\TI. Ditto. Ore in form of lumps, making up seven-eighths of sample. A rich 
and valuable ore, phosphorus being low and sulphur absent. Anal. Dr. Xoad, 
qi;oted by Meade [op. cit., p. 694). 

VIII. Haematite from Brixham, soft and brilliant, used for paint. Meade 
(np. cit., p. 695). 



south devon 49 

details of mines 

Haytor Iron Ore Mines 

Ilsingtou, Newton Abbot 
Mr. Reuben Cook, Welsh Mill, Frome 

Openworks, adit, and day-level at Haytor Vale, a mile north- 
west of Ilsington. liailway-stations : Bovey Tracey ((i.W.K.), 
3 miles eastward by road; Newton Abbot (G.W.K.), 8 miles south- 
eastward by road. 

One-inch 2\ew Series Ordnance and Geological Map, 338; Six- 
inch Devon, 100 S.E. Lat. 50° 34' 45". Long. 3' 44' 5". 

The ' lode ' consists of four distinct bands lying among altered 
shales and sandstones (Culm Measures). 

Foster, in the paper cited, gives a sketch, taken in a new 
adit-level (at a depth of 20 fathoms below the old openwork), 
which shows three bands of magnetite, 10 ft., 14 ft., and 6 ft. 
thick in descending order; but these beds contained seams of 
waste respectively 2 ft., 1 ft., and 1 ft. thick. According to 
these figures there would be in all 26 ft. of ore, a figure in 
excess of that given in an earlier account of the openworks by 
J. T. Kingston.^ Perhaps the bands increase in thickness as 
they are traced do^vnwards. 

Recent work in the upper part of the mine has exposed these 
three bands with a total thickness of 12|^ ft. A fourth band, 
about 3 ft. thick, crops out at a distance of about 300 yds. north- 
east of the others.^ 

The bands dip N. 25° E. at 30°, strike E. 25° S., and their 
outcrops run for about a quarter of a mile in an eastward 
direction. The footwall of No. 1 lode consists of shale and chert; 
of No. 2, of a fine-grained aplite dyke; and of No. 3, of black 
shale. The beds are folded into an anticline, which has been 
truncated by the intrusive granite-mass at a distance of about 
half a mile to the north-west of the mine, and has been traced 
to the south-east for about half a mile. 

The ore consists of remarkably pure majjnetite, often in 
octahedral crystals, associated with a mass of actinolite or fibrous 
hornblende. Other minerals found include quartz, chalcedony, 
garnet, iron-pyrites, traces of copper-pyrites, arsenical minerals 
and some spathic iron-ore. 

There are no published complete analyses of the ore, but the 
percentage of iron is said to range from 40 to TO. 

An adit 18 fathoms below surface has been driven from Haytor 
Vale in a S.S.W. direction for 500 yds., and the workings extend 
underground to a depth of 18 fathoms. There are also some open- 
cast pits. 

From 1858 to 18G1, and from 1869 to 1882. a total of 26,500 
tons of magnetite, brown haematite and micaceous iron-ore were 
raised from ' Haytor and Ilsington.' In 1908, 1,400 tons of iron- 
ore containing 57-5 per cent, of iron were produced from the 
same mine. From 'Haytor Vale' 4,720 tons of magnetite? and 
brown haematite were raised in 1866 and 1867, 1872 and 1875. 

1 Phil. Mag., vol. iii, 1828, p. 359. 

2 ' Geology of Dartmoor ' (Mem. Geol. Sun:). 1912. pp. 79. 80. 



60 UNBEDDED IRON ORES 

The mine was reopened in 1916, and has since yielded from 
60 to 70 tons per month. 

Smallacombe Iron Mine 
Ilsington, Newton Abbot 

Openworks, shafts and adit half a mile south-east of Haytor 
Vale, and 700 yds. south-east of the Haytor Mine (p. 49). 

One-inch New Series Ordnance and (jeological Map, 338; Six- 
inch Devon, 100 S.E. Lat. 50° 34' 33". Long. 3° 43' 40". 

Limonite and magnetite are present on this property. The 
limonite occurs in the form of irregular beds of nodules in 
decomposed shales and grits (Culm Measures), which dip gently 
to the north-east. The limonite contains 43 per cent, of iron 
and 4 of manganese.^ 

The magnetite forms three or four beds of variable thickness 
in a thick mass of greenstone, lying below and to the south-west 
of the beds of limonite. The general dip seems to be about 30° 
and the strike nearly north-west. The magnetite ' lodes ' are 
presumably the easterly continuation of those at Haytor.^ 

Umber has been worked in the upper part of the magnetite-lode 
where decomposed, and contains at a few fathoms from the surface 
large quantities of garnet rock and hornblende. Collins^ points 
out that a similar association of minerals is characteristic of 
magnetite-deposits in Sweden and elsewhere. 

An adit was driven in 1872 for a distance of 90 fathoms to 
intercept the magnetite-beds. There were also three shafts sunk. 
These are shown in a section of the mine figured in the Geological 
Survey Memoir already cited. 

The mine has recently (June, 1917) been reopened. 

Between 1865 and 1873 there were raised 7,952 tons; between 
1874 and 1879, 11,770 tons of brown haematite, ochre and umber; 
in 1868, 73 tons of magnetite. 

Kelly Mine 
Bovey Tracey, Newton Abbot 
The Scottish Silvoid Company, Limited, Glasgow 

Day-levels and adit situated at Kelly, about half a mile north- 
east of Lustleigh Churcli. Station: Lustleigh (G.W.R.). 

One-inch New Series Ordnance and Geological Map, 339; Six- 
inch Devon, 101 N.W. Lat. 50° 37' 25". Long. 3° 42' 9". 

There are three parallel lodes coursing nearly east-and-west 
through the granite country-rock, and varying in width from a 
mere crack up to 4 ft. They hade to the north at 1 in 6. 

The country-rock has been mineralised, the felspar having been 
converted into mica (gilbertite) and the biotite into tourmaline. 
The ore-body consists of micaceous haematite packed together into 
hard masses and frequently associated with quartz and schorl. 

1 ' Report on Eesources of Iron Ores ' (Department of Scientific and Industrial 
Research), 8vo, 1917, p. 15. 

2 ' Geology of Dartmoor ' (Mem. Geol. Surv.), 1912, p. 82. 
• ' Rept. Miners' Association, Cornwall,' for 1872-3, p. 7J. 



SOUTH DEVON 



61 



Schorl-rock (' kippel ' or ' cockle ') forms the gangue and is 
composed sometimes of loosely-aggregated crystals, but more often 
of hard rock. A characteristic feature of the gangue is the 
presence of numerous perfectly-formed crystals of marcasite, some 
over an inch long. So far only a small quantity of cassiterite 
has been recorded from this area, but it is the main constituent 
of the ' haematite ' lodes at Birch Tor and Vitifer on Central 
Dartmoor. From this evidence the origin of the ore is seen 
to be epigenetic and pneumatolytic. 



Fig. 5. — Ma'p of Iron-mining District^ Bovey Tracey, Devon. 



xxxxxxx'"'"'' >9'^«« • nelly Mine, xxxx«,<< 
r\x x X "•• ^:*- ^' ^•' ^ K , X . X / X . X X K* Hawk moor <■ * » > Great. 

xxxxxxxxxx*»x«x«« Mine « * x x x x Minf 
XXX * , "S+V^ ' _ " » « * X 'V"i"= X X X X X X x'v"/^. 




O I 2 3 

^[^^Allus^.um CI3 Bovey Beds ^3 %?^^/?ff^cA5 ^^ Granite 

The ore is a variety of specular haematite, occurring in very 
fine scales and described as micaceous iron-ore. It ha:> long been 
worked and was formerly sent in large quantities to London 
for use as ' writing-sand ' or ' Devonshire Sand.' In recent times 
considerable quantities have been raised under the name of 
' shining ore ' and exported. 

There are thre<> levels above adit, and a cross-cut driven north- 
ward into a steep hill. The first level is 8 fathoms, the second 
15 fathoms, and the top level about 25 fathoms above the adit. 
The ore is loaded on to trucks and run to a battery of Cornish 
stamps worked by an overshot water-wheel, the crushed ore being 
successively passed under a waterfall, through six sluice-boxes, 
and into settling-tanks. The micaceous ore is thus separated 
from -the quartz and ' cockle ' of the gangue. Water is run off 



62 TJNBEDDED IRON ORES 

from the settling-tanks and the ore is taken to the ' drys ' and 
filled into casks ready for transport. 

Between 1879 and 1901 the mine yielded 344 tons of brown 
haematite, containing 50 per cent of iron and selling for £3 a ton 
in 1900. Between 1902 and 1907 the mine produced 794 tons 
of ' shining ore.' 

Great Rock Mine 

Hennock, Bovey Tracey 
The Ferrubrou Mauufacturiiig Company, Henuock, Bovey Tracey 

Day-levels and adit situated in Lake's Copse, about three- 
eighths of a mile N.N.W. of Henuock church. Kailway Station : 
Trusham (G.W.R.), 2 miles eastwards by road. 

One-inch New Series Ordnance and Geological Map, 339; Six- 
inch Devon 101 N.W. Lat. 50° 37' 17". Long. 3° 39' 27". 

The lode courses in a direction of E. 10"" S., underlies at 
1 in 5 to the north, and ranges in thickness from ^ in. to 5 ft. 
Mineralised granite forms the country-rock, in which vast 
numbers of crystals of naarcasite are distributed. The gangue 
consists of quartz and schorl or 'kippel.' 

The ore consists of micaceous haematite identical in character 
with that tound at Kelly Mine (p. 50j. 

There are four levels and several cross-cuts and winzes. The 
adit-level is 1,500 ft. long; the second level, 100 ft. above, is 
also 1,500 ft. long; the third, 1,100 ft. long, is 56 ft. above the 
second; while the fourth is 70 ft. above the third level^ 130 ft. 
from the surface, and 350 ft. long. After passing a set of 4-head 
Galifornian prospecting-stamps, the crushed ore is carried in 
launders to sluice-boxes and settling-tanks. It is dug out of the 
latter, dried over kilns, and packed in casks in 8-10 cwt. parcels. 
The water-power is derived from reservoirs working three wheels 
(400 ft. fall). Compressed air is used for the drills. The ore 
is sold for the manufacture of non-corrodible paint, and to 
chemical works at Swansea and Cardiff. 

The Great Rock Mine yielded 650 tons of ' shining ore ' between 
1902 and 1907. The present outj)ut for Kelly Mine and Great 
Rock is about 400 tons j^er annum. The reserves are considered 
adequate to last for many years at present rate of output. 

Sharkham Iron Ore Mine 
Brixham 

Mr. Reuben Cook, "Welsh Mill, Frome 

Openworks and adit situated on Sharkham Point, about a mile 
south-east of Brixham (Fig. 6, p. 53). 

One-inch New Series Ordnance and Geological Map, 350; Six- 
inch Devon 128 N.E. Lat. 50° 22' 55". Long. 3° 30' 7". 

There is no true lode, the ore occurring as irregularly-shaped 
bodies in Middle Devonian limestone. Some of these bodies 
occupy pockets or what are apparently old solution-cavities. In 
these cases the junction between the ironstone and the limestone 
is sharply defined. More commonly the ore passes gradually into 



SOUTH DEVON 



53 



limestone, and some of the bodies have the appearance of true 
lodes, with nearly vertical walls. Collins^ speaks of two ' lodes ' 
at this locality. 

The ore consists mainly of red haematite, but a small quantity 
of limonite is met with. The haematite is said- to contain, on 
average, about 53 per cent, of iron, 20 per cent, of silica, 0-01 
of phosphorus, 0-03 of sulphur, and 0-1 of manganese. At present 
the Ore is graded into ' firsts ' containing up to 60 per cent, of 
iron, and ' seconds ' with 30 per cent. Other analyses, both of 
furnace-ore and of paint-ore, are given by Meade. 

In the mine now being worked the adit, which runs southward, 
is 400 ft. long, and is connected with a shaft at a depth of 
78 fathoms from the surface. There are many levels in the 
mine, but, as all are above adit-level, no trouble from water is 
■experienced. 

Fig. G. — Map of Sharhham Point, Brixham, Devon. 




Musse/ Rock 



MILE 



1 I Limestone 



>/4- 



[E3 V^o/con/c Rock ^ S/ate 



Vz 



Iron-ore has been worked in the neighbourhood for many years 
at the Sharkham, Cloister, Five Acres, Furzeham, Salcombe, 
Wheal Prosper, Parkin, Uj ton, Drews and Torbay mines. From 
this group of mines the output from 1858 to 1875 was 160,000 
tons of iron-ore. After 1875 the mines produced very little for 
some years. The output for 1916 was about 4,000 tons. The 
present sett includes the whole limestone-area at Sharkham Point, 



' ' Observations on the West of Enj^jlund Mining Refj^ion.' 8vo, 1912, p. 425. 

2 ' Report on Resources of Iron Ores' (Dept. Scientific and Industrial 
Research), 1917. p. 15. 



64 



UNBEDDED IRON ORES 



and tlie amount of ore in sight is considered to be large. The 
ore is sent to ironworks and to paint manufactories. 

Other South Devon Mines 

In addition to tlie active mines described above, a number 
of others have raised smaller amounts of iron-ore, either as the 
sole product or as a by-product in the mining of other ores. 
Some proportion of the output was, however, used for paint, 
and not for the manufacture of iron. The following notes on 
some of these mines are compiled mainly from the Geological 
Survey Memoirs, from J. H. Collins,^ R. Meade, ^ and the Statistics 
of Output : — 

one-inch new series map 338 (daetmoor forest) 







Six- inch 






Mine. 


Parish. 


Map 

(Devon). 


Tons. 


Mineral. 


Period. 


Atlas Tin Mine 


Ilsington . . . 


108 N.E. 


1,300 


Brown hsBmatite 


In 1864. 


Birch Tor and 


North Bovey 


99 N.E. 


25 


Specular ore (58 % 


In 1906. 


Vitifer 








iron) 




Hat herley Mine 


Ilsington ... 


— 


550 


Magnetic ore 


In 1866 
and 


1 








1877. 


South Devon 


Petertavy ... 


98 S.W. 


690 


Spathic ore ... 


— 


United Mine 












South Devor, 


Petertavy ... 


98 S.W. 


2,150 


Brown haematite (and 


— 


United Mine 








umber) 




South Devon 


Buokfastleigh 


114N.W. 


1,111 


Browm haematite and 


In 1872-4. 


Mine 








specular ore 





At the Atlas Tin Mine the brown haematite appears to have 
been obtained from two beds (not lodes) about 55 fathoms apart, 
the lower bed being associated with iron-pyrites. The beds dip 
north-eastward at 22° to 27°. The mine (of which a cross-section 
is given in the Geological Survey Memoir) was worked by shafts 
and an adit. In 1892 a deep adit "(15 fathoms below the shallow 
adit) was being driven. The country-rock is killas. 

At Birch Tor and Vitifer the specular ore was associated in 
the lodes with tinstone and tourmaline. The lodes trend E. 25° N. 
to E. 45° N., are more or less vertical, and range up to 2 ft. or 
more in thickness. The country-rock is granite. 

At the South Devon United Mine (Petertavy) the main lode 
ranges E. 10° S., and appears to be a fault. 

At the South Devon Mine near Buckfastleigh (of which the 
situation is uncertain) Meade records that lodes of brown 
haematite, traversing Devonian killas and limestone, and coursing 
east-and-west, yielded, in 1872-4, 1,111 tons of ore, which sold 
at 15s. per ton and contained 55 per cent, of iron. Some of 
this ore is described as micaceous. 



1 ' The West of England Mining Region,' 8vo, Plymouth, 1912. 

2 * The Coal and Iron Industries of the United Kingdom,' 8vo, 1882. 



SOUTH DEVON 



55 



ONE-INCH NEW SERIES MAP 339 (tEIGNMOUTH) 







Six-inch 








Mine. 


Parish. 


Map 
(Devon). 


Tons. 


Mineral. 


Period. 


Frankmills 


Christow 


101 N.W. 


240 


Brown haematite 


In 1872, 
1879-80. 


,, 


J) ... 


>> 


18*» 


Spathic ore 


In 1874-7. 


Hawkmoor 


Bovey Tracey 




^570 


Brown haematite 


In 1892- 


Phimley 


,, 


)) 


( 


(49%) 


1907. 


Shaptor 


,, 


,, 


c 






Shuttamoor . . . 


Christow 


91 S.W. 


jl80(. 


Shining ore. 




South Exmouth 


Hemioek 


101 N.W. 


181 


Shining ore 


In 1872. 


Wol borough ... 


Wol borough ? 


109 S.E. 


124( 


Brown haematite 


In 1870, 
1874. 



The micaceous or shiuiug ore is particularly abundant in the 
veins in the granite between Lustleigh and Hennock. These 
veins have a range varying from E. 20" X. to east-and-west, and 
a width of from 1 to 12 ft. The mines in this area have yielded 
in recent years about 3,425 tons of shining ore, selling at £4 to 
£S 8s. a ton. 

An important lode of barytic lead, yielding, among other 
minerals, spathic iron-ore and brown haematite in depth, has been 
worked between Hennock and Christow at the South Exmouth, 
Frankmills, Adams, Exmouth, Eeed, Aller, and Beunah mines. 
The lode, which traverses the Culm Measures, runs approximately 
north-and-south, and has been traced for about 2^ miles. It 
is generally 2 to 4 ft. wide, and in places is vertical or highly 
inclined to the east. At the South Exmouth Mine (GOO yards 
E. of Hennock) the vein has been worked from shafts to the 
90-fathom level, and another vein, parallel and a little farther 
east, has been proved underground. At the Frankmills Mine 
(three-quarters of a mile X.E. of Hennock) the lode is branched; 
the east lode and the west lode have been worked from shafts by 
cross-cuts and levels to a depth of 145 fathoms (another account 
says 175). The spathic iron-ore raised at this mine had the 
composition shown on p. 48, but beiug merely a by-product of 
the lead-mining it was not all sold, on account of the cost of 
transport to Teignmouth. The mine closed down in 1880. At 
Wheal Exmouth the lode is branched; the workings extend to 
below the 84-fathom level, and were reached by shafts. The 
outputs of iron-ore from some of these mines are given above. 

Hawkmoor, Plumley and Shaptor mines lie between Lustleigh 
and Hennock and are named on the 2nd edition (1906) of the 
six-inch map. The lodes traverse granite, and were worked by 
levels and shafts. The shining ore from these mines was sold 
for £4 to £5 a ton. The brown haematite raised at Wolborough, 
on the southern outskirts of Newton Abbot, sold for 10s. to 15s. 
a ton. 



56 L'NBEDDED IRON ORES 

ONE-INCH NEW SERIES MAP 349 (iVYBRIDGE) 







Siz-irich 








Mine. 


Parish. 


map 

{Devon). 


Tons. 


Mineral. 


Period. 


Boringdon Consols 


Plympton St, 
Mary 


^8 S.W. 


680 


Iron-ore < ... 


In 1852-7. 


Bdkamore Iron 


Rattery 


120 N.E. 


4,400 


Brown haema- 


In 1874-5. 


Mine. 








tite 




Shaugh Iron Mine 


Shaugh Prior 


118 N.W. 


4,670 


Iron- ore 


In 1870-4. 


Yealmpton 


Yealmpton... 


125 S.W. 


250 


Brown haema- 
tite 


In 1867. 


Ug borough 


— 


— 2,233 




In 1874-6. 



Boringdon Consols was mainly a lead-mine ; the others produced 
iron-ore alone. Boringdon Consols is situated about 5 furlongs 
N.W. of Boringdon, and was 62 fathoms deep. The lode runs 
east-and-west for about a mile from a point in the E-iver Plym 
about 100 yards south of Plym Bridge. The Shaugh Iron Mine is 
situated in Square's Wood, 3 furlongs south of Shaugh Bridge. 
The Bulkamore Iron Mine is situated 3 furlongs N.E. of 
Bulkamore. The country-rock is in all cases Middle or Upper 
Devonian slate, the Bulkamore mine being situated at the 
junction of the slate with a volcanic rock. The ores were mainly 
limonite or brown haematite ; that from the Shaugh mine varied 
in price from 10s. to 15s. a ton, while that from Bulkamore sold 
for 15s. to 18s. 

Cornwall 

general account 

Cornwall has been worked for upwards of two thousand years 
lor its minerals; but although the chief lodes of iron-ore were 
known certainly as early as 1670, they were apparently not worked 
until nearly the middle of the 19th century. The occurrence of 
iron-ore was mentioned by Sir John Pettus in 1670, by Borlase 
in 1758, and by Camden in 1806, who all remark that the lodes 
were unworked. But, according to De la Beche^ by 1839 several 
iron-mines, among them Restormel, had been in operation for 
some time. The value of the iron-ore is, however, insignificant 
in comparison with that of the ores of tin and of copper. 

The development of the mines is indicated by the output. 
Between 1855 and 1865 this fluctuated from 19,000 to 55,000 tons 
per annum; it fell in 1867 to about 4,600 tons, but rose in 1874 
to 45,000, then fell again to a few thousand tons a year. The 
importation of the cheap Spanish ores led to the closing of Cornish 
mines. A few, restarting for short periods, have vielded since 
1884 about 3,000 tons. ' 

The principal source of iron-ore is the Great Perran Lode, which 
lies a few miles soulh of Newquay and extends from the coast 
inland for a distance of 4 miles (Fig. 7, p. 57). On this lode are 



^ ' Rept. on Geology of Cornwall, Devon, and West Somerset' {Mem. 
JSurv.), 1839, p. 617. 



Geol. 



CORNWALL 



51' 



situated tlie following mines: (1) Gravel Hill. (2) Mount and 
Trebisken, (3) Treamble, (4) Great Eetallack, (5) Duchy Peru^ 
and (6) Deerpark. 




58 UNBEDDED IRON ORES 

Nearly all the other lodes lie arouuJ the St. Austell granite- 
mass and principally between Wadebridge and St. Austell 
(Fig. T, p. 57). Upon them from west to east the following mines 
have been worked : (7) Indian Queen, (8) Wheal Edith, (9) Pits 
Mingle, (10) Pawton, (11) Tower Consols, (12) Coidvreath, 
(13) Lanjew, (14) Colbiggan, (15) Retire and Wheal James, 
(16) Woodley, (17) Nanstallon, (18) Boscarne, (19) Ruby, 
(20) Treliry, (21) Restormel, (22) Bodinnick, and (23) South 
Terras. The remaining mines are scattered, but lie mainly in 
Western Cornwall, between Truro and Helston. The principal 
are : (24) Wheal Falmouth and Wheal Sperries, and (25) 
Constantine or Brogden's. 

Both the anhydrous oxides of iron : magnetite (Ye^iJj and 
haematite (FCgOg), occur in Cornwall. Magnetite forms a con- 
stituent of the basic igneous rocks or greenstones and of the 
lavas, but not generally in sufficient quantity to be worked as 
an ore. Exceptionally it has become segregated into lenticular 
beds such as are seen in the cliffs at Botallack near the Land's End, 
at Trebarwith and Barras JSTose near Tintagel, in the greenstone 
near Treiuswell by Penryn, and at South Terras near St. Austell. 
The black magnetic sand found near Botallack and the ilmenite- 
sands of Manaccan, in the Lizard district, are derived from 
similar igneous rocks by weathering. Magnetite occurs also as 
a lode-filling near Roche church in the St. Austell district. 

Under haematite are included all the varieties of ferric oxide. 
Owing to their brilliancy some crystals are called spfecular iron, 
iron glance, or looking-glass ore; this ore is worked in Devon, 
but in Cornwall it has been recorded only at Botallack, and at 
Restormel near Lostwithiel. 

Of massive haematite or red iron-ore the principal localities 
are Restormel, Knightor, Ruby and Treverbyn, all near St. 
Austell. It occurs also at Tamill, St. Clether, west of 
Launceston. 

The hydrated oxides gothite and limonite both occur in 
Cornwall. The rare gothite was worked at Restormel, Botallack, 
and St. Just (Land's End). It sometimes occurs in a 
characteristic manner as acicular crystals forming fibrous 
aggregates locally called ' needle iron-ore.' At Restormel a 
regular succession of iron-ores was found to hold in the vugs 
or cavities m the veinstone, the sequence being (1) crystalline 
quartz, (2) fibrous limonite or 'wood iron-ore,' (3) crystalline 
gothite, (4) compact haematite, the successive zones being marked 
by differences of colour. 

Limonite or brown iron-ore, a hydrated oxide of variable 
composition and of secondary origin, containing about 15 per 
cent, of water (nearly 5 per cent, more than gothite), is a common 
ore in Cornwall, and occurs in masses and also in the fibrous form 
known as ' wood iron-ore,' with radial and zonal structure, and 
also in stalactitic forms. It has been worked in many of the 
north-and-south lodes between Bodmin and St. Austell, and Id 
the upper part of the Great Perran Lode. 

Chalybite, spathic ore, or siderite, the carbonate of iron, is 
the principal ore of the Great Perran Lode, and also of the Pawton 
lode, and is found at many other localities. Near the surface 



CORNWALL 59 

it lias been changed into limonite. Copper pyrites, fluorspar, 
galena and blende are frequent associates of chalybite, and the 
assemblage points to their derivation from emanations given olf by 
the granite-masses during consolidation. 

Iron-pyrites, although of general occurrence in the Cornish tin- 
lodes, cannot be regarded as a source of iron-ore ; moreover, as it 
usually contains arsenic, its use in tlie manufacture of sulphuric 
acid is attended with ditticulties. During the treatment of the 
mixed concentrates at the tin-mines, the calcination of the iron- 
pyrites produces finely-divided oxide of iron, which is washed 
away during the subsequent dressing process and is lost. Ex- 
periments have been made to recover it, but the cost has proved 
too high to render the operation a commercial success. 

Nearly all the iron-ore that has been worked in Cornwall occurs 
in lodes; magnetite, however, probably owes its origin to 
tnagnuitic concentration, and occurs in less regular bodies. Some 
veins fill pre-existing fissures; others appear to be zones of rock 
permeated wath metallic minerals. The country-rock is usually 
slaty killas, but is elsewhere granite, as at the Treverbyn and 
Ruby mines. 

The course of the Cornish lodes is generally north-of-east and 
8outh-of-west, and these usually carry tin and copper. But 
another set of lodes, later than these and known as cross-courses, 
run in a north-and-south direction. To this series belong 
most of the iron-ore lodes. The Great Perran Lode, however, 
follows a general east-and-west course, and for this and other 
reasons was supposed by W. W. Smyth and J. H. Collins to 
be the gozzan of a tin and copper lode (p. 62). 

Some of the iron-ores may have originated at the time the 
sediments were deposited; but the majority appear to owe their 
origin to vapours and solutions given out from the granite-masses 
during their consolidation from a fluid state. The intimate 
connection of the iron-ores with minerals that are generally 
recognized to owe their origin to this cause, the general trend 
of the lodes, and other phenomena, support this theoiy. 

The reserves of iron-ore at the localities mentioned on pp. 57, 58 
are extremely difficult to estimate. The Great Perran Lude is 
by no means exhausted, and its width, depth and length indicate 
an enormous quantity of ore if the ore-body is continuous. 
Working experience, however, has proved its frequent diminution 
in thickness, its discontinuity, and its local impoverishment. 
Of the other lodes liestormel is largely stoped away down to adit, 
and the same remark applies to some of the small lodes lying 
to the south of Bodmin. A total reserve of 500,000 tons of 
Cornish iron-ores of all varieties can safely be predicted ; a million 
tons would, perhaps, be a more likely estimate. 

Most of the ore was sent to the furnaces in South Wales ; some 
went to the Midlands. Sir Henry Bes.semer described the Perran 
ore as suitable for the manufacture of steel by his process. It 
has also been used in the basic open-hearth process. The haematite 
from Kestormel was in some request for the manufacture of 
Bessemer pig about the year 1882. 

Analyses of some of these Cornish ores are given on pp. 60, 61. 



60 



rXBEDDED IROJf ORES 



115 



§ 

1 




9300 

1-10 
3-60 

T. 
T. 

2-50 


1 


1 

s 

.•a 


><' 


C5 LO 

(M CO l-O O -f CO CI ci O 

Ml 1 9 1 *P 1 1 T**r 1 999 T< III 


o 

CO 

00 


>< 


^l|r|^il^9|9r:o 9 ||| 




1 


« 




o 
o 


1 


1-5 


o 1 M 1 1 1 1 gsj 1 1^ 1 gg(^ 1 1^1 




1 




'?i^iiii'^it:it:;i9 1 |9| 

Tjflgllllcql'^l'^lo 1 lol 


W5 


1 

o 


l-H 

> 


•?' 1 H II II "^ 1 H 1 H ^ ^ 1 1 '^M 


•—< 


1 

o 


> 


00 . o o o 

•^lEHllll'^^lrJIr-r:^'' 1 I'^l 

I^ 1 1^ 1 1 1 1 LO 1 t^ 1 ^ t^ 6 1 \ XO \ 

oo '^ 


y 

3 


•s 




> 


in TjH oo —1 oo C"0 CO 

oo-thOi |<^i i''P'P|'r^9'9' i I?'! 
t-»co' Im' li><Nloob 1 !«! 


S 

o 


":- 1 H 1 1 N 1 1 ^^ 1 ^H^ 1 1^1 
ol llt-i|li>>;li2;'^0 1 I(mI 

CO •— ' »^ „H 




& 


c 


O— 1 O t>O0't(M O 

9 s-^ . 1 1 9 1 1 7^ 'l^ 1 r 9 r^ 1 1 9 1 


lb 


M 


W5 o c o c 
* 1 °° 1 1 1 1 1 '^■' 1 1 1 1 "P 1 1 ^^ 1 
ihlbili'i'^l'llb 1 1(^1 
00 ^ 


1 






o 
o 

^fssi. ;| , . ;s||a 1 

g g = I'p 1 i ii sB|f fill ll-l 


c 
p 












S o 

■«.2 



-t3 

i^ 2 

^M 00 



Ot3 

si 



= 12! 









6 o'o 



rt IS g aij- OS'S "3 "5 





CORNWALL 






t>i 




Spathic Ores. 








1 


Duchy 


Peru. 


Treamble. i 


Paw ton. 




I. 


II. 


III. 


IV. 


V. 


Iron peroxide 






2 00 


, 


6500 


Iron protoxide ... ... ... 


47-43 


49.-49 


— 


47-57 


— 


Iron carbonate 


— 


— 


7411 


— 


26-10 


Manganou-s oxide 


6-42 


7^12 


— 


; 7-20 


• — 


Manganese carbonate 


— 


— 


6-73 


— 


— 


Alumina ... 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1-80 


Lime 


0-70 


1-56 


1-50 


— 


— 


Magnesia 


603 


2-87 


7-80 


1 — 


— 


Silica and silicates 


5 04 


1-61 


8 00 


1 0-64 


4-40 


Sulphur 


0-23 


— 


nil. 


— 


0-20 


Sulphur trioxide 


— 


— 


— 


1-20 


— 


Phosphorus 


trace. 


— 


nil. 


— 


trace 


Phosphorus pentoxide 


— 


— 


— 


trace 


— 


Moisture 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1-20 


Carbonic acid 


33-70 


34-67 


— 


36-76 


1 — 


Metallic iron 


36-89 


38-49 





37-00 


— 


Metallic manganese 


4-97 


5-51 


— 


; 5-58 


1-00 


Phosphoras 


trace 


trace 


— 


i trace 


— 


Sulphur 


023 


0-75 


— 


0-48 


— 


When roasted : — 












Loss by calcination 


31-10 


32-74 


— 


— 


— 


Metallic iron 


53-40 


56-60 


50-00 


— 


— 


Metallic manganese ... 


7-20 


8-10 


4-40 


i 


1 



I and II. Rees Price in J. H. CoUins's Rept. Miners' Assoc, of Cornwall and 
Devon for 1873, pp. (1-15). 

III. Anal. Dr. Noad in J. H. CoUins's Rept. Miners' Assoc, of Cornwall and 
Devon ior 1873, pp. (1-15). 

IV. Anal. Rees Price in J. H. CoUins's Rept. Miners' Assoc, of Cornwall and 
/>ron for 1873, pp. (1-15). 

V. Anal. J. H. Collins iti Meade's ' Coal and Iron Industries of the United 
Kingdom,' p. 706. (Spathic ore from depth of 22 fm»f). 



DETAILS OF MINES 

NeWI^UAY DlSTKlCT, 

The Per ran Iron Lode, — This lode is the priucipal iron-lode 
iu Coiuwall.^ It courses iu a geueral eas4-B0uth-easterly 
direction, which is unusual for Cornish iron-lodes. It also dili'ers 
in its great thickness, its underlie, and in the nature of its contents 
from all other iron-lodes in the West of England. 

First seen in the clitt'-face south of Ligger Point, it can be 
traced inland for a distance of 4 miles, and with less certainty 
for several more miles towards the east. The richest section, 
however, occurs near the west coast and at some localities where 



^ 'Geology of Newquay' {Mem. Choi. Surv.), 1906, pp. 100, 101, etc.; also 
J. H. Collins, 'The West of England Mining Region,' 8vo, Plymouth, 1912, 
pp. 227-233, and Trans. R. Oral. Soc. Cornivall, vol. xiv. Earlier references 
from which those writers compiled their notes are quoted in the above-menti^nrd 
publications. 

B 



62 UNBEDDED IRON ORES 

it has been mined between there and Shepherd's Station. In 
width it varies from several fathoms to a few inches. A similar 
diminution occurs also in depth; at one mine the lode died out 
altogether, but in others it was wide and rich at a depth of 
70 fathoms. The, underlie varies from 40° to 50°. 

The iron-ore at a depth consists of chalybite or sj)athic ore, but 
has been converted into oxides and hydroxide of iron for a 
variable depth down to 20 fathoms. Most of it was brown 
hydroxide or limonite ; but some rich red haematite and, more 
rarely, magnetic ore and pyrites were found. 

Associated with the iron-ores are ores of zinc, lead, silver and 
copper. Especially rich deposits of these ores were found at the 
point of intersection of the iron-lode with north-and-south courses 
carrying lead and zinc, some of which contained valuable 
quantities of silver. 

Here and there the lode showed in the mines a somewhat regular 
sequence of the different ores from the surface downwards. Thus 
at the Duchy Peru Mine the following sequence was found : for 
the uppermost 20 fathoms, haematite and limonite; in the 
succeeding 20 fathoms, mainly blende, galena and some copper 
and silver ores ; at the 40-fathom level, an enormous mass of 
marcasite, which by oxidation gave rise to suffocating gas and 
high temperatures, resulting in a temporary impeding of the 
work; and from the 40-fathom to the 70-fathom level (where 
the working ceased), white spathic ore. 

The course of the lode, the association of its ores and their 
enrichment in depth, suggest that it originated in a similar 
manner to those of copper and of tin. Most of these also show 
a regular descending sequence of the constituent minerals, and 
some of the lead-lodes appear to pass down into copper at depth, 
while practically all Cornish lodes have their uppermost parts 
converted into a mass of oxidized mineral-matter known to the 
miner as ' gozzan.' These facts led both Smyth^ and Collins^ 
to infer that the Perran Lode is in reality a ' gozzan ' or ' iron hat ' 
of a lode bearing copper and lead, possibly of high values, but 
at a depth of something between 100 to 200 fathoms. 

Formerly there was a demand for the ore, but the absence 
of railway-transport prohibited its being worked. In 1865 a 
railroad was built, but soon afterwards importation of Spanish ores 
rendered further working unprofitable. The rails were taken up 
in 1915, and the question of transport has returned to its position 
of 1865, except that the track is preserved. 

With regard to the quality of the ore Sir Henry Bessemer^ 
stated that it was especially adapted for the Bessemer process 
of manufacturing steel, and a Mr. Carter said that on account 
of the high percentage of manganese in the ore^^ it was suitable 
for the manufacture of spiegeleisen. 

The reserves of iron-ore in the Perran lode cannot be estimated 
with any approach to accuracy. Not only does the width of the 

1 Trans. R. Geol. Soc. Carntvall, vol. vii, 1858, pp. 332-335, and vol. x, 1882, 
p. 120. 

2 Rept. Miners' Assoc. Corn, and Devon for 1873 (1874), p. .55. 

3 Minutes of E\4dence before a Committee of the House of Commons, 1865, 
Quest. 513-528. 



CORNWALL 63 

lode vary greatly, but the space between the two walls frequently 
contains brecciated country-rock, or else the lode itself has sult'ered 
great brecciation and cementation by quartz. Smyth^ remarks 
that "the statements as to 'practically inexhaustible quantities 
and the diagrammatic, sections showing .... an illimitable sea 
of white spathic iron,' require a much closer attention to facts 
if we would approximate nearer to the whole truth." He then 
describes the large amount of breccia found in the lode at many 
localities, and says " in some parts of the lode it is of portentous 
dimensions, as at the 60 ft. level at the Duchy Mine the lode, 
10-12 fathoms in width .... appei».s to be one vast mass of 
this fragmentary material." As regards lateral continuity, he 
cites several instances where the lode completely died out along 
the strike. 

The downward limit of the iron-ore has never been ascertained. 
At Severn 1 mines it was followed to depths varying from 17 to 
70 fathoms, but the intervening ground remains unproven. 

Similarly with regard to the nature of the ore : the top 20 
or 30 fathoms usually consist of a ' gozzan ' of either compact 
or cellular brown haematite, sometimes containing unweathered 
lumps of white chalybite, and often the whole mass is highly 
siliceous. Beneath the haematite the lode appears to be composed 
of spathose carbonate of iron with occasional bands of blende, 
some galena and, more rarely, copj)er. The spathic ore appears 
to affect the footwall, while the blende occurs in the central and 
upper parts of the lode. 

1. Gravel Hill Mine 

Perranzabuloe, near Perranporth 

(Reopening) 

The I'erran Mining Syndicate, Treanible, Perranf)orth 

Shafts situated on the coast half a mile south-east of Ligger 
Point, at the north end of Ligger or Perrau Bay. Station : 
Perranporth (G.W.ll.), 2^ miles south across the sands, or 6 miles 
by road. 

One-inch New Series Ordnance and Geological Map 340; Six- 
inch Cornwall 30 S.W. Lat. 50° 22' 20". Long. 5° 8' 42". 

The mine was formerly known as the Penhale Iron Mine. It 
was reopened about 1010. 

The lode, known as the Great Perran Lode, is visible in the 
clitt'-face, where it is about 100 ft. wide and is divided by a horse 
of killas. It runs obliquely up the clilf, here 200 ft. high, and 
hades south-west at 50*^ at an oblicjue angle with the cleavage- 
planes. It includes angular tragments of an elvan that occurs 
in situ a few yards away. The country-rock is Devonian slate. 

Near the surface the^ ore is mainly red and brown ha?matite, 
but it changes in depth into white spathic ore. The u])per part 
i-^ riddled with veins of white quartz; at the 13-fathom level 
there was a mass of cellular brown ore about 9 fathoms in width. 

^ The Duchy Peru Lode, Perran z a. buloe.' Trans. R. Geol. Soc. Cornivall, 
vol. X, J882, p. 120. 

E 2 



64 L'NKEDDED IRON ORES 

The brown lijematite contains 49-66 per cent, metallic iron and 
0-49 of silica.^ 

There are two shafts : No. 1, an air-shaft, a short distance from 
the edge of the clifl:'; and No. 2, or Borlase's Shaft, farther inland, 
which communicates at 15 fathoms with a level to a large 
excavation, the 'Big Iron Pit,' on the southern branch of the 
lode. Several other shafts still farther inland were sunk on the 
lode. From the coast a level was driven in the country-rock 
of the footwall for a distance of 70 fathoms. The lode was worked 
to a depth of about 12 fathoms, but below that it rapidly narrowed 
to 4 ft. and then changed to blue flucan.^ 

From the cliff-outcrop alone 40,000 tons of ore had been taken 
out^ by 1873. The Home Office Returns give the output between 
1874-1882 as 7,400 tons of haematite and 3,000 tons of mixed 
spathic ore and hsematite. The haematite is quoted as containing 
47 per cent, of iron. The possible reserves are discussed on p. 59. 



2. Mount and Trebisken Mines 

Perranzabuloe and Cubert 

[Reopening) 

The Perran Mining Syndicate 

Shafts and day-levels situated at Mount, nearly a mile S.S.W. 
of Cubert. Station : Perranporth, 2^ miles to the south-west. 

One-inch New Series Ordnance and Geological Map 346; Six- 
inch Cornwall 39 S.W. and 48 N.W. Lat. 50° 21' 55". Long. 
5° 7' 15". 

In width the lode varies from 25 to 50 ft., but the richest 
ore is confined to the central part, about 3 fathoms wide; nearer 
the walls it is mixed with quartz and killas. The lode hades 
S.S.W. at 45*^. The country-rock is Devonian slate. 

The ore raised was mainly brown hsematite, the workings having 
been stopped before they reached the spathic ore. In the w^estern 
part of the workings blende occurs. The iron-lode is intersected 
by the Trebisken and Trebellan lodes, which contain sprigs of 
silver with galena. At about 20 fathoms from the point of inter- 
section with the Trebellan lode a rich deposit of native silver 
with galena was found. Analyses give the following percentage 
composition of the hydrated brown iron-ore found at Trebisken : 
peroxide of iron, 54-28; silica and alumina, 30-8; and water, 
14-10. -^ 

A level has been driven for a distance of 320 yds. from the 
north, and then turns parallel to the lode, with several cross- 
cuts, proving it for a distance of some 200 fathoms. The lode 
has been worked to a depth of about 10 fathoms. 

^ W. R. Roebuck, ' Observations on the Iron IVIines of Cornwall,' 8vo (pub- 
lished privately), 1876. 

2 N. Bryant, Rept. B. Cornwall Pohj. Soc, 1870. pp. 98-100. 

^ J. H. Collins, Rept. Miners' Assoc, for Cornwall and Devon for 1873, p. (3). 

* J. T. Woodhouse, .Journ. Iron and Steel Inst., vol. ii, 1871, p. 32. 



CORNWALL 60 

Mount and Tiebisken yielded 32,600 tons of haematite betwoen 
1851i and 187G; in addition, Mount Mine, between 1871 and 1874, 
produced 3,700 tons of haematite. The mine was reopened in llJlU. 

3. Treamble Mine 

Perrauzabuloe, near Perranporth. 

[Reopening) 

The Perran Mining Syndicate 

Shafts and openworks at Treamble* a mile south of Cubert. 
Station : Perranporth, 2\ miles to the south-west. 

One-inch 2sew Series Ordnance and Geological Map 346; Six- 
inch Cornwall 48 N.W. Tennant's Shaft: Lat. 5U'' 21' 39'. 
Long. 5^ 6' 49". 

The Perran iron-lode^ is here 6 fathoms wide and dips W.S.W. 
at about 40^. The country-rock is Devonian slate. The ore is 
of inferior quality at the surface, but improves in depth. It 
consists of red haematite, kidney-ore, and brown haematite, down 
to a depth of about 17 fathoms, below which the white spathic 
ore is found; this ore continues in depth. For analyses, see 
pp. 60, 61. 

There are two great open excavations. In the western one the 
iron-lode was proved by an underlie shaft to a depth of 17 fathoms 
and was worked to below drainage-level. In the eastern quarry 
the lode splits into several branches and has been proved to a 
depth of ir fathoms by another shaft (Berryman's Shaft, near 
Great Ketallackj. 

A lead-lode belonging to the Petallack Mine crosses the iron- 
lo'le and at the junction galtna wais proved to a depth of 7 or 
8 fathoms. This lead contained horn silver and native silver. 

The output between 1859 and 1892 amounted to 15,300 tons of 
haematite. In addition there were 958 tons of brown haematite 
and spathic ore. Some of the brown haematite raised in 1892 
contained 43 per cent, of iron. The mine has recently (1917) 
been reopened. 

There may be large reserves, as the mine is only 700 yds. 
from Mount Mine and scarcely any of the lode between the two 
properties has been touched. 

4. Great Petallack Mine 
Perrauzabuloe 
{Reo]pening) 
Thi Perran Miniiijj Syiuiirate 
Shaft situated about two-thirds of a mile west of Rejerrah. 
One-inch New Seiies Ordnance and Geological Sheet 346; 
Six-inch Cornwall 48 N.E. Berryman's Shaft : Lat. 50° 21' 38'. 
Long. 5° 6' 31". 

Ill this sett the lodo" generally is several fathoms in width and 
at the 60-fathom level is said to be 240 ft. wide, but it is doubtful 

1 J. H. Collins. ' The West of England Mining Region,' pp. 229-230. 

2 Collins, op. cil., pp. 229, 230. 



QQ UNBEDDED IRON ORES 

if this measuremeut was taken at riglit-augles to the lode. The 
couutry-rock is Devouiau slate. The lode courses about south- 
east, and underlies south-west. Near the surface it contained 
brown hsematite and blende, the latter ore inci^asing in depth. 
According to W. R. Roebuck^ the brown hoematite contains about 
56 per cent, of metallic iron and 1-2 of silica. Below the 
60-fathom level copper ore occurred. In the mine, at Stephens's 
Shaft, a great mass of hornblende rock was met with in sinking, 
while near its intersection with the Peru lode the iron-ore 
contained rich argentiferous galena. 

Berryman's Shaft was sunk to a depth of 17 fathoms. 

Between 1850-1880, 10,850 tons of hsematite were produced 
and Ij tons of very rich silver-lead ore. The mine was reopened 
in 1917. 

5. Duchy Peru Mine 

Perranzabuloe 

(Idle) 

The Perran Mining Syndicate 

Shafts situated at Eejerrah. Station : Perranporth, 3 miles 
south-west, or Gooniiavern Halt, 1| miles south. 

One-inch New Series Ordnance and Geological Map 346; Six- 
inch Cornwall 48 N.E. Roebuck's Shaft: Lat. 50° 21' 30". 
Long. 5° 5' 59". 

At this locality the Great Perran Lode" changes its course from 
E. 30° S. to E. 10° S. ; it underlies south at 40°. The lode averaged 
about 70 ft. in width, of which perhaps 25 ft. bore iron-ore, 
and persisted in depth locally to at least 80 fathoms. The country- 
rock is Devonian slate. 

The ore for a depth of 20 fathoms consisted of brown hsematite, 
below which was found a quantity of blende in irregular masses 
up to 40 ft. in width; galena also occurred. These ores were 
mainly in the middle of the lode-cavity, while the iron-ore aft'ected 
the footwall. At a depth of 40 fathoms there were large masses 
of marcasite, which by oxidation gave rise to such heat that 
work was retarded, and in consequence of which the level was 
known as the 'hot end.' From the 50-fathom down to the 
80-fathom level the lode yielded only chalybite or spathic ore; 
but below the 60-fathom it consisted mainly of breccia, 10 to 
12 fathoms wide, composed of slate fragments, quartz and some 
blende. Sir Henry Bessemer visited the mine and stated that 
the ore was entirely suited for his process of manufacturing basic 
steel. The composition of the ores is given on pp. 60, 61. 

The distribution of the ore, however, varied in different parts 
of the workings. The rich course of spathic ore, which held 
down almost vertically to 70 fathoms and was 6 to 9 ft. wide at 
the Main Shaft, came to an end suddenly both eastward and 
westward. Again : west of Hathorne's Shaft, another column 
of chalybite extended for only a few feet laterally and was 
succeeded by a quartz-filling of the nature of a cross-course, with 

^ ' Observations on the Iron Mines of the Great Perran Lode ' (privately 
printed), 1876, p. 20. 

2 Collins, op. cit., pp. 230, 231. 



CORNWALL 67 

impressions of crystals of fluorspar. Another product of the 
lode is zinc-blende, which was found as huge masses up to a ton 
in weight, and amounted to as much as 900 tons a month. 

In estimating reserves the impersistent character of the lode, 
both laterally and in depth, must be borne in mind. Much of 
the fissure carried only slate-breccia, and the adjacent killas 
forming the country-rock was much disturbed. Such conditions 
are likely to recur along the lode. 

The extent of ground worked out and the total output are 
both unknown, but it is not likely that the levels met those of 
adjacent mines, so that there ma^ be considerable reserves. 
According to Collins, in the period 1858 to 1886 the mine yielded 
21,400 tons of brown haematite, 11,000 of chalybite, 180 of ochre 
and umber, and 760 of iron pyrites. 

The ' back ' of the lode was worked by opencast pits ; the deeper 
parts by shafts, levels, cross-cuts and winzes. The Main Shaft 
was 80 fathoms deep when the mine was abandoned in 1886. 
There appear to have been at least four other shafts, the more 
important being Roebuck's (70 fathoms deep in 1881) and 
Valhmce's. These two shafts are connected by cross-cuts at the 
40 and the 50-fathom levels. Sea-level is at 40 fathoms below 
the surface, and adit at about 150 ft. In June, 1917, the mine 
was flooded. 

6. Deerpark Mine 

Newlyn East 

(Disused) 

Shafts and openworks situated about half a mile south-east 
of Kejerrah and nearly a mile north-west of Shepherd's Station 
(G.W.K.). 

One-inch New Series Ordnance and Geological Map 346; Six- 
inch Cornwall 48 X.E. Barton's Shaft: Lat. 50^ 21' 26". 
Long. 5° 4' 50". 

The Perran iron-lode traverses this sett and is crossed by three 
or more lead-lodes, but very little work has been done.^ The 
country-rock is Devonian slate. From 1875-9, 267 tons of iron- 
ore, 3 tons of lead-ore, and 10 tons of blende were sold. 

Wadebridge and St. Austell District 

This district contains a number of scattered mines on veins 
that traverse the St. Austell granite and the killas surrounding it. 

7. Indian Queen Mine 

St. Columb Major 

(^Abandoned) 

Indian Queen Mining and Colour Compajiy, Limited 
Openworks and shaft at Toldish, 2^ miles south of St. Columb 
Major. Station: St. Columb Road, 1^ miles south-west by road. 

^ J. H. Collins, op. cil., p. 4t>7. 



68 • UNBEDDED IRON OEES 

One-incli New Series Ordnauce and Geological Map 347; Six- 
inch Cornwall 40 N.E. Shaft : Lat. 50° 24' 6". Long. 4° 55' 22". 

The main lode, known as the Gaverigan lode, has been worked 
by opencast pits.^ Its bearing is N. 33° W., and it can be traced 
from the Bodmin and Truro main road at Toldish north-westward 
across the disused tunnel on the Newquay branch railway at 
the Indian Queen Colour Works towards Treliver, where it bears 
N. 50° W. In the tunnel it was found to contain 16 to 18 ft. 
of clean iron-ore. 

The ore is limonite, with some red hgematite and pockets of 
wad and solid black oxide of manganese. The mine was worked 
largely for ochre and umber. The country-rock is Devonian slate 
metamorphosed. 

The lode was worked by open quarries for a depth of about 
40 ft.; day-levels were then driven along the lode. There were 
several shafts also. The haematite was used in the manufacture 
of paint, and although there is a considerable quantity of ore 
left, this residue is said to be too impure for that purpose. 

The output from this lode was contributed by several different 
mines : Toldish, Indian Queen, and Ruthvoes or Ruthers, which 
last appears to be identical with Indian Queen. From Indian 
Queen 17,847 tons of iron-ore were raised in 1856-1863 and in 
1876; from Ruthvoes, 1,242 tons in 1872 and 1,022 tons of 
manganese ore in 1874-5, 1880-1 ; there were also yields of ochre 
and umber. Toldish seems to have been worked for manganese 
as early as 1754. 

Treliver Lodes. — Some old openworks and shafts in the fields 
immediately south of Treliver^ (three-quarters of a mile N.N.W. 
of Toldish) were worked for iron-ore on several lodes, some of 
which run east-and-west, others north-and-south. Treliver raised 
1,380 tons of iron-ore (mainly haematite) in 1858-61. 

8. Wheal Edith 

St. Enoder 

{Disused) 

Shafts situated at Retew, 4 miles S. by E. of St. Columb Major.. 
Station : St. Columb Road (G.W.R.), 2 miles north-westward by 
road. 

One-inch New Series Ordnance and Geological Map 347; Six- 
inch Cornwall 40 S.E. Lat. 50° 22' 35". Long. 4° 55' 32". 

An old report states that there are three lodes in the sett. No. 1 
has not been worked, but its outcrop is exposed in a china-clay pit. 
No. 2 has been worked to a depth of 10 fathoms for a distance 
of 40 fathoms, but the workings are now filled in. No. 3 has 
been worked to a depth of 6 fathoms for a distance of 30 fathoms. 
The ore was red and brown haematite,^ and the country-rock is- 
granite. 

Nothing is recorded as to output, and reserves are unknown. 

1 ' Geology of Bodmin and St. Austell ' {Mem. Geol. Surv.), 1909, p. 158. 

2 Ifeid., p. 158. 

3 Ibid., p. 144. 



CORNWALL 69 

The mine is within half a mile of a mineral line (the Eetew 
Branch) connected at St. Dennis Junction with the Par and 
Newquay Branch of the G.W.R. 

9. Pits Mingle Ikon Mine 
Roche 

[Disused) 

Openworks, known as Dyehouse Mine and as Trerank^ Mine^ 
situated at Pits Mingle, about half a mile west of Poche. 
Station : Poche (G.W.P.) 1^ miles. ' 

One-inch New Series Ordnance and Geological Map 347; Six- 
inch Cornwall 41 N.W. Lat. 50° 24' 15". Long 4^ 50' 34". 

The lode runs north-and-south. The only record relating to this 
mine is that 344 tons of iron-ore were sold in 1858, and that 
between 18GG to 18G8, 1,173 tons were sold. The ore was hard 
siliceous limouite. The country-rock is calcareous Devonian slate 
metamorphosed. 

10. Tower Consols 

Roche 

[Disused) 

Shaft known also as Wheal Click and as ' The Magnetic Iron 
Mine,' situated a few yards to the south of Poche church. 
Station : Poche (G.W.P.), a mile north. 

One-inch New Series Ordnance and Geological Map 347; Six- 
inch Cornwall 41 N.E. Lat. 50^ 24' 9". Long. 4° 49' 50". 

The lode runs east-and-west (parallel with the strike of the 
killas), is nearly vertical, and consists principally of magnetic 
iron-ore with some red haematite and limonite. Collins" states- 
that copper ore in small quantities was mined with the magnetite. 
The country-rock is metamorphosed Devonian slate. 

The mine was first worked in 1843. The shaft is in the held 
in front of the church; it was about 40 ft. in depth, but is now 
filled in. The mine is flooded, and is said to be a ' wet ' mine. 

The output was 200 tons in 1873, but in 1874 was merged in 
that of other mines in the Mineral Statistics. 

11. Coldvreath 

Poche 

[StandiJig) 

Shafts, openworks and adit, situated near Coldvreath Farm, 
a mile south of Poche. 

One-inch New Series Ordnance and Geological Map 347; Six- 
inch Cornwall 41 S.E. Main Shaft: Lat. 50° 23' 10\ Long. 
4° 49' 59". 

Coldvreath Mine was once called Killivreath. 

There are two lodes, nearly parallel the one with the other, of 
which the western or main lode crops out for a distance of about 



^ ' Geology of Bodmin and St. Austell ' {Mem. Geol. Surv.), 1909, p. 158. 
* ' The Hensbarrow Granite District,' 8vo, 1878, p. 46. 



iO UNBEDDED IRON ORES 

1,000 yds. It courses roughly north-aud-south, is nearly vertical 
or underlies steeply west, and is about 9 ft. wide. The second 
lode in places, almost joins the main lode and crops out for a 
distance of about 800 yds. ; it is about 3 ft. wide. The country- 
rock is metamorjihosed Devonian slate and audalusite mica-schist. 
The ore is hard limonite or brown haematite, which occupies a 
fissure about 10 ft. wide in the mica-schist. The following 
analysis^ shows the average composition: — 

Peroxide cf iron ... ... ... ... ... ... 76'0 



iSiiica 
Alumina 

CaO, MgO, MnO 

P.0« 

Moisture and combined water 



^■(5 

4-6 

traces 

traces 

130 



99-2 
Metallic iron 53-2 

The mine was formerly worked by opencast pits; the principal 
•one, situated on the south-south-western edge of Coldvreath, is 
40 ft. deep and 100 yards long. The lode was proved in an engine- 
shaft to a depth of 17 fathoms ; there is also an adit 9 fathoms 
long. 

The output amounted to 14,570 tons during the years 1854 to 
1864, 1870 to 1875, and 1882. In the last year mentioned 550 tons 
were sold, containing 49-14 per cent, of iron. The outputs for 
1856 and 1881 are merged in those of other mines. 

12. Pawton Mine 
St. Breock 
[Standing) 

Shafts nearly half a mile west of Pawton, 2| miles south-west 
■of Wadebridge. 

One-inch New Series Ordnance and Geological Map, 336; Six- 
inch Cornwall 25 S.AV. Engine-shaft: Lat. 50° 29' 36". Long. 
4° 53' 15". ^ 

The lode- varies in width from 1 ft. to 30 ft., but averages 
6 to 8 ft. It underlies east at 10° and bears X. 18° W. The 
country-rock is Devonian slate. 

The greater jjart of the ore is brown haematite, sometimes with 
botryoidal structure. There is, however, much red haematite down 
to the 22-fathom level, but below that depth spathic iron-ore is 
mixed with it. For analyses, see pp. 60, 61. 

The principal shaft (the engine-shaft) was sunk to a depth of 
115 fathoms, of which over 90 fathoms are below adit-level. There 
are six other shafts, two N.N.W. and four S.S.E. of the engine- 
shaft, and ten levels driven parallel to the lode. At the south-west 
end of the sett adit-level is 25 fathoms beneath the surface. The 
lode is not entirely worked out. 

^ ' Geology of Bodmin and St. Austell ' ( J/e//t. Geol. Surv.), 1909, p. 141. 

2 J. H. Collins, ' On the Pawton Iron Mine,' Rep. Min. Assoc. Corn, and 
Devon ioT 1875, p. 26 (1876) ; 'The West of England Miniag Region,' p. 275. 
.See also ' Geology of Padstow and Camelford ' {Mem. Geol. Surv.), 1910, p. 101. 



CORNWALL ' 71 

From 1861 to 1864 the output was 49,350 tous of brown 
lisematite; in 1873 and 1874, 5,372 tons. There was an output in 
1865 also, but in the Mineral Statistics this is included with 
Tremoor. 

13. Laxjew axd Blackhay Mixes 

Withiel, Bodmin 

(^Abandoned) 

Levels and shafts half a mile west of Withiel, 5 miles west- 
by-south of Bodmin. Stations : ' Koche (G.W.R.), 4 miles 
southward by road; Bodmin (G.W.ll.), 7 miles by road. 

One-inch New Series Ordnance and (ieological Map, 347; Six- 
inch Cornwall 33 N.E. and S.E. Lanjew : Lat. 50° 27' 7". 
Long. 4° 50' 10". Blackhay : Lat. 50° 27' 24". Long. 4° 50' 10". 

Known also as Lanjeth or Langeth and as Nanjeth.^ 

The lode courses north-and-south and underlies west at 1 in 6. 
It is about 8 to 10 ft. wide and consists of red haematite and 
limonite. The ore is said to be of as good quality as any in 
Cornwall. The country-rock is Devonian slate and calc-flinta. 

The lode was worked by two mines : Blackhay, at the northern 
end, and Lanjew, at the southern end of the outcrop. There is 
a shaft 10 fathoms deep meeting a trial-level. Adit-level is 
25-30 fathoms below the trial. 

In 1857 to 1859, 2,390 tons of ore were sold; some sold in 1874 
is merged, in the Mineral Statistics, in the outputs from other 
mines. From the Blackhay Mine 4,330 tons were sold in 1872-4 
and 1879-80. 

14. CoLBiGGAN (Roche) akd Hosewaiirick (Laxivet) Mines 

15. Hetire and AVheal James (Withiel) Mixes, 
near Bodmin 

{Disused) 

These four mines, all within a mile of each other, in the order 
^iven above, are situated in succession from south to north on 
the Colbiggan Lode. 

Colbigcjan : Shafts 250 to 450 vds. N. of Lower Colbiggan. 
l\ miles S.E. of Withiel. "Main Shaft : Lat. 50° 26' 22"'. 
Long. 4° 48' 26". 

Rosewarrick: Shafts 750 yds. W. by N. of llosewarrick. 
Main Shaft : Lat. 50° 26' 28". Long. 4° 48' 25". 

Retire: Shaft 300 yds. N.E. of lletire, three-quarters of 
a mile S.E. of Withiel. Lat. 50° 26' 50". Long. 
4° 48' 32". 

Wheal James: Shaft 500 yds. N.N.E. of Betire. Lat. 
50° 26' 57". Long. 4° 48^ 33". 

^ A 'Nanjeath ' Mmo at 8t. Su-phon's by St. Austell Is mentiuntti on p. 148 
of the Geo). Survey Memoir on ' Bodmiii and St. Austell,' and an anal^'sis of its 
limonite given ; but no further details are known. 



TJi UNBEDDED IRON ORES 

One-iucli New Series Ordnance and Geological Map, 347; Six- 
inch Cornwall 33 S.E. and N.E. 

The lode, wliicli has been traced for over a mile from south 
to north, traverses slightly calcareous soft Devonian slate, which 
in places has been converted into an intensely hard calc-hornfels 
containing garnet and axinite. It courses N. 10° W., is nearly 
vertical, and is said to vary in width from 5 to 14 ft., occasionally 
to 18 it. 

The ore is red and brown haematite and limonite, mixed with 
black oxide of manganese. 

At the Colbiggan Mine a shaft was sunk to a depth of 
25 fathoms, which proved the lode to be from 6 to 8 ft. thick, 
while two other shafts are 7 and 15 fathoms deep respectively. 
According to local information, the mine suspended work in less 
than two years, more on account of fall in price of ore than through 
exhaustion of the ore. 

At the Rosewarrick Mine there are three shafts each about 
7 fathoms deep, at which depth the lode varies from 6 to 18 f athoms- 
in width. 

At the Retire Mine the depth of the shaft is unknown. 

At Wheal James the engine-shaft is 20 fathoms deep. Farther 
north, in Corn. 33 N.E., an adit, driven in a W.S.W. direction 
from the brook-side east of Withielgoose, cut the lode at 420 yams. 

From Colbiggan, 4,930 tons were raised in 1874. From Retire, 
23,960 in 1856-70; tliis mine is said to have been worked out 
down to adit-level. 

16. West Downs or Woodley Iron Mine 

Lanivet 

[A handoned) 

Shafts situated three-quarters of a mile W.S.W. of Lanivet, 
3 miles S.W. of Bodmin. Stations : St. Lawrence Halt or 
Bodmin. 

One-inch New Series Ordnance and Geological Map, 347; Six- 
inch Cornwall 33 S.E. Lat. 50° 26' 20". Long. 4° 46' 43". 

On the six-inch map (ed. 2, 1908) it is named Westdowns Mine. 
It has been called also Woodley and Lanivet. 

The lode occupies a hssure about 9 ft. wide.^ in purple and green 
gritty Devonian slate, with tourmalinised bands, and intersects a 
stanniferous elvan. 

The ore consists of red and brown haematite and spathose iron- 
ore and manganese; it is remarkably free from sulphur and 
phosphorus. 

A shaft was sunk a few fathoms and a level driven from it to 
cut the lode. Other lodes in the sett have been found by means of 
prospecting pits. 

The mine was worked in 1859 and from 1871 to 1878 as Lanivet 
and West Downs, during which periods its output of haematite 
and spathose iron-ores was 13,560 tons. Woodley produced 71 tons 
of haematite in 1861. 



CORNWALL i .1 

17. Nanstallon or Newdowns Mine 
Bodmin 

(Abandoned) 

Openworks and shafts a mile west of Nanstallon, west of 
Bodmin. Station : Xanstallon Halt (L. and S.W.lt., Bodmin and 
Wadebridge Line), or Bodmin (G.W.R.), 3^ miles. 

One-inch New Series Ordnance and Geological Maps, 347 and 
336. Six-inch Cornwall 33 N.E. and 25 S.E. South shaft: Lat. 
50° 28' 3". Long. 4° 47' 17". 

The mine is named Newdowns Mine on the six-inch map 
(ed. 2, 1908), but appears to be identical with the Nanstallon 
Mine commonly referred to as in the Parish of Lanivet. It lies 
half a mile N.E. of Ruthernbridge. 

A. series of north-and-south lodes. The principal one, consisting 
of three more or less parallel branches, has been traced for 
1^ miles. Two of the lodes average 6 ft. and one 3 ft. in thickness. 
Half a mile farther south, on Mun>erry Downs, a lode of iron-ore 
in the same course crops out for 550 yards, and is shown on the 
six-inch geological map. Its southern end is 100 yards east of the 
openwork of the Mulberry Tin Mine. The country-rock is 
Devonian grit. 

The ore is brown haematite, in places somewhat sparry, but 
for the most part it consists of fibrous kidney ore. It contains 
74-64 per cent, of peroxide of iron, 12-3 of silica and alumina, 
0-68 of phosphoric acid, and about 11 of water.^ 

In 1859 and 1860 a total of 2,124 tons of haematite was raised. 

18. BoscARNE Mine 
Bodmin 

(Abandoned) 

A level situated 300 yds. W.S.W. of Boscarue, 4 miles south- 
east of Wadebridge. It is on the northern bank of the river 
Camel, 300 yards west of Boscarne Mill and opposite Nanstallon 
Church (2 miles west of Bodmin). 

One-inch New Series Ordnance and Geological Map, 336; Six- 
inch Cornwall 34 N.W. Lat. 50^ 28' 24". Long 4' 46' 0". 

The lode runs north-and-south for a distance of 1,500 yards, an.d 
averages about 6 ft. in width. The country-rock is Devonian grit. 

The ore is mainly brown ha-matite. It consists- of 7225 per 
cent, of peroxide of iron, 12 of silica and alumina, 046 of 
phosphoric acid, and 11-2 of water. 

An adit was driven in a north-eastward direction for a distance 
of 300 yds., to a depth of 40 yds. 

There is no record of output later than 1861, when 65 tons of 
haematite were obtained. 

* J. T. Woodhouse, Journ. Iron and Steel hist., vol. ii, 1871, p. 20. 
2 Ihid., p. 28. 



74 unbedded iron ores 

19. Ruby, Knightor, and Treverbyn Iron Mines 

St. Austell 

(A handoned) 

These three mines, all within half a mile of each other, are 
situated on the Ruby iron-lode. In the order given above they 
follow in succession from south to north. 

The mines fall within the one-inch New Series Ordnance and 
Geological Map, 347; and Six-inch Cornwall 42 S.W. 

Ruhy: Shafts, 350 yds. N.W. of Trethurgy, 2\ miles N.E. 
of St. Austell. Lat. 50° 22' 5". Long. 4° 45' 50". 

Knightor: Shaft, 250 yds. N.N.W. of Knightor. Lat. 
50° 22' 22". Long. 4° 45' 56". 

Treverbyn : Shaft, 220 yds. S.S.E. of Treverbyn. Lat. 
50° 22' 27". Long. 4° 45' 58". 

The lode is said by Collins^ to be traceable from the south 
coast near Crinnis Island (2| miles east of St. Austell) northward 
to the parish of Withiel, a distance of nine miles; but it is 
discontinuous, and in the killas carries only a little chalybite and 
blende. On entering the granite near Trethurgy, and thence to 
the Knightor Mine, it contains pure hsematite. Between 
Treverbyn and Colbiggan the fissure carries very little ore, but 
is again richer near Withiel (p. 71). Its course is thus N. 20° W. 
The lode is nearly vertical and of variable width, from a few 
inches up to 12 ft., and narrowing considerably at depth. In 
places there are two lodes, which, when worked together, were 
profitable. 

The ore was red hsematite of remarkable purity, some picked 
samples containing 96-2 per cent, of iron peroxide, and neither 
sulphur nor phosphorus. The average iron-percentage of the ore 
raised was 60. Some soft ore from a flucan supplied excellent 
material for paint-making. 

At the Euby^ Mine the workings extend to a depth of 40 fathoms,, 
and were reached by shafts and an adit-level. There was also an 
opencast pit 20 or 30 ft. deep on the back of the lode. At Knightoj 
the workings were shallower. 

The Euby Mine produced 2,000 tons in 1862; Ruby and 
Knightor, 44,700 tons in 1864-71; Ruby and Trethurgy, 25,150 
tons in 1872-80; Treverbyn, 204 tons in 1865; Knightor and 
Treverbyn, 4,580 tons in 1872-74. The owner states that the 
total output was about a million tons. The Ruby Mine was 
w^orking in 1847 and closed in 1876. 

Nearly all the ore above adit-level has been extracted, there 
is heavy water, and the country is hard granite. The prospect 
of the lode being reopened, therefore, is regarded as remote. 

^ ' On the Hensbarrow Granite District,' 8vo, 1878, p. 44 ; ' Observations on 
the West of England Mining Region,' 8vo, 1912, pp. 244-5. 

2 ' Geology of Bodmin and St. Austell ' (Mem. Geol. Surv.), 1909, p. 155. 



coknwall » o- 

20. Treffry a>d Peideaux Mi>'ES 
Luxulian, Lostwithiel 

{Abando7ied) 

Treffry : Shafts situated in a wood called The Presei'ves, about 
800 yards S.S.W. of Prideaux House, 1;^ miles S.E. of Luxulian. 
Lat. 50^ 21' 55". Long. 4"- 44' 5". 

i'rideaux : Shafts in Prideaux Wood, near Tywardraeth 
Highway. The lode is exposed in a china-clay pit (Lat. 50° 22' 3". 
Long. 4'^ 42' 55") belonging to the Prideaux Wood China Clay 
Works. ^» 

One-inch New Series Ordnance and Geological Map, 347; Six- 
inch Cornwall 42 S.W. 

The country-rock is granite at Treli'ry, granite and Devonian 
slates, metamorphosed, at Prideaux. 

According to Collins,^ " Prospecting work has been carried on 
at Restinnis, Treskilling, Levrean, Canna, and Savath; also at 
the Treffry Iron Mine, in the Luxulyan valley, where, for a length 
of 60 fathoms, the lode was worked away for a height of 
14 fathoms, and yielded between 9,000 and 10,000 tons of ore, 
most of it being red hematite of excellent quality." The Treffry 
lode runs N. 18° AV. and dips east at 85°, 

According to the Home Office Keturns, Treti'ry Consols and 
Treffry and Eestineas had an output for the years 1862 and 1873 
to 1877 of 6,455 tons of red haematite. Prideaux produced 2,200 
tons in 1862 and 1864. 

The Prideaux Mine has recently been reopened. 

21. Restormel Irox Mine 

Lanlivery, Lostwithiel 

[Standing) 

Openworks, shafts, and adit, half a mile X.W. of Lostwithiel 
Station, and the like distance S.S.W. of Restormel. 

One-inch New Series Ordnance and Geological Map, 347 ; Six- 
inch Cornwall 42 N.E. Old Openwork: Lat. 50° 24' 53". Long. 
4° 40' 35". 

The liestormel lode^ consists of two more or less parallel veins- 
a few fathoms apart, occupies a cross-course in Devonian slate, 
bears about N. lo° W., and hades to the east at 5° to 20°. The 
compound lode is in places 2 to 4 fathoms wide where the com- 
ponent veins join, or where the country-rock between them becomes 
impregnated with iron-ore. 

Collins' slates that the lode is traceable northward from 
Restormel through Lanhydrock to Balscalt, a distance of at least 
5 miles. In the Great Wood at Lanhydrock it is indicated by 
an outcrop of quartz and iron-ore 60 yds. long, with a bearing of 

1 ' The VVi'st i.f England Mining Region,' pp. 24o, 370. 

^ Henwood, W. J., ' On the MetaUiferitus Deposits of Cornwall and Devon,* 
Trans. Hoy. Geol. Soc. Corn., vol. v, 184.3, p. 128. ' Geology of Bodmin and 
St. Austeir (iMem. Geol. Surv.). 1909, p. 154. J. H. Collins, 'On the Hens- 
barrow (Jranite J)istrict,' 8vo, Truro, 1878; 'Observations on the West of 
England Mining Region,' 8vo, Plymouth, 1912, pp. 246-7. 

^ Observations, tfcc, p. 246. 



76 UNBEDDED IRON OKKS 

N. 10° W.^ Southward the fault-fissures appear to have been 
traced through Castle and Castle Dore to the coast at Little 
Gribbin. 

The ore throughout was carried in a quartzose veinstone, in 
which occurred numerous cavities or vugs, lined with beautiful 
mineral specimens, for which the mine has long been famous. 
Massive haematite was the principal ore obtained. Associated with 
it were the hydrated oxides gothite and limonite, which occurred 
in alternating bands. Gothite, usually rather a rare mineral, 
was found commonly at Restormel, some examples being of 
exceptional beauty. It is composed of peroxide of iron with about 
10 per cent, of water, and may be regarded as ferric hydrate. 
Acicular crystals of gothite forming fibrous aggregates, and locally 
called ' needle iron,' were a characteristic feature of the lode. 

It is possible that the Restormel lode is a gozzan or ' iron hat ' 
to a lead or copper lode, as has been suggested in the case of the 
Great Perran Lode (p. 62). 

Some ore was got in opencast pits, 40 ft. deep, and extending 
along the crop for nearly three-quarters of a mile. But the 
greater part was mined, and the workings were drained by an 
adit, 240 fathoms long, opening to the Fowey Yalley on the east. 
According to Collins, in 1858 the workings had reached a depth 
of 50 or 60 fathoms from the surface. Larg-e sections of ore 
have been stoped away for a length of nearly three-quarters of 
a mile and to a depth of 60 fathoms below adit-level. An old 
shaft, 300 ft. deep, is still in good condition. The mine was 
re-timbered about four years ago from the adit-entrance to the 
shaft, but a large fall of roof has since blocked up part of the 
levels. In July, 1917, the mine was flooded to adit-level. 

The first recorded output is for the year 1855, when 20,807 tons 
of haematite were raised; between 1855 and 1869, 90,810 tons are 
recorded. From 1870 to 1883 the mine yielded 30,986 tons. 
Between 1855 and 1883 the price of the ore averaged 8s. per ton. 
In 1882 the ore contained 44 per cent, of iron. In 1910 the 
output was 688 tons of 42 per cent. ore. 

A longitudinal section of the mine, showing the extensive 
stoping, is given in the Geological Survey Memoir already quoted. 
Much of the ore has been removed down to a depth of 60 fathoms 
below adit-level, and it is thought probable that the mine is 
•€xliausted down to the first level below adit. About 1910 some 
work was going on at the mine. 

22. BoDiNNicK Mine 

St. Stephen-in-Brannel 
(^A-bandoned) 

Openworks and shafts 500 yds. S.W. of Bodinnick, three- 
quarters of a mile S.S.E. of St. Stephen-in-Brannel. Station: 
Grampound Eoad (G.W.E.), 3 miles S.W. by road. 

One-inch New Series Ordnance and Geological Map, 347; Six- 
inch Cornwall 50 S.W. Lat. 50° 19' 50". Long. 4° 53' 12". 

1 ' The Gksology of the Country around Bodmin and St. Austell ' {Mem. Geol. 
JSurv.), 1909, p. 154. 



CORNWALL 



77 



There are two lodes in Devonian slate, one bearing E. 38° S., 
the other E. 68"^ S. The former cuts and heaves the latter, and 
the mine is situated at the point of intersection. The ore is 
said by Woodhouse^ to be 'compact brown haematite,' and by 
Collins^ to be siliceous brown haematite. Magnetite and brown 
iron-ore were obtained.^ 

From 1858 to 1863, 3,250 tons of iron-ore were sold. 



23. South Terras Mine • 

St. Stephen-in-Brannel, Grampound Road 
[Abandoned) 

Shafts and adit at Tolgarrick, a mile S.W. of St. Stephen-in- 
Brannel, and 5 miles west of St, Austell. Station : Grampound 
Eoad (G.W.ll.), 2 miles south-west. 

One-inch Xew Series Ordnance and Geological Map, 347 ; Six- 
inch Cornwall 50 S.W. Lat. 50° 20' 0". Long. 4° 54' 15". 

This mine, the noted Uranium or Union Mine, is situated in 
the Fal Valley, three-quarters of -a mile south of Terras Bridge. 

The country-rock is killas and intrusive greenstone, and the 
sett is traversed by three elvans and by two lodes, the Uranium 
Lode and the Great Lode. The Great Lode has been worked at 
the surface for magnetic iron-ore and umber; but at depth, about 
the 50-fathoui level, these ores give place to zinc-blende, mispickel, 
copper-pyrites, tinstone and silver. The lode has a bearing of 
E. 20° S., and occurs in a greenstone.* 

The composition of the magnetite is shown by the following 
analyses : — 





I. 


II. 


III. 


Magnetic oxide of iron 


84-24 


— 


— 


Peroxide of iron 


.3-84 


69-36 


62-81 


Protoxide of iron ... 


— 


18-36 


31-28 


Protoxide of manganese ... 


106 


0-18 


— 


Oxide of manganese 


— 


— 


0-46 


Silica 


7-51 


7-44 


1-W 


Alumina 


1-35 


0-86 


0-69 


Lime 


trace 


2-10 


0-37 


Magnesia 


trace 


0-14 


trace 


Phosphoric acid 


trace 


0-03 


05 


Sulphuric acid 


trace 


trace 


— 


Sulphur 


— 


— 


0-04 


Carbonic acid 


— 


— 


2-30 


Combined water 


— 


— 


0-53 


Water 


200 


1-53 


trace 




10000 


100-00 


100-37 


Metallic iron 


63-67 


62-83 





1 and II. From J. D. Kendall, 'The Iron Ores of Great Britain and Ireland,' 
8vo, 1893, p. 125. 

III. Anal, by E. Riley, quoted in ' Geology of Bodmin and St. Austell ' {Mem. 
Qeol. Swrv.), 1909, p. 157. 

^ Joum. Iron and Steel Inst., vol. ii, 1871, p. 28. 

2 ' The West of England Mining Region,' p. 241. 

3 ' Oology of Bodmin and St. Austell (Mem. Oed. Surv.), 1909, p. 137. 
* Ibid., p. 157. 



78 UNBEDDED IRON ORES 

Between 1873 and 1881 tlie output was 4,923 tons of brown 
haematite, 762 tons of oclire and umber, and 500 tons of magnetite. 

Truro and Helston District 

The mines in this district of Western Cornwall are few and 
scattered ; the following are the most important : — 

, 24. Wheal Falmouth and Wheal Sperries 

Kea, near Truro 
{Abandoned) 

Shafts between Hugu and Baldhu, about 3 miles W.S.W. of 
Truro. 

One-inch New Series Ordnance and Geological Map, 352. 
Wheal Falmouth : Six-inch Cornwall 57 S.W. Ajoproximate 

Lat. 50° 15' 0". Long. 5° 7' 0". 
W heal Sperries : Six-inch Cornwall 64 N.W. Approximate 
Lat. 50° 14' 50". Long. 5° 7' 45". 

A number of lodes, ranging about north-east and south-west, 
have yielded a great variety of ores, including those of tin, copper, 
lead, silver, zinc, arsenic, and iron, with ochre, umber, and iron- 
pyrites. The country-rock is slate of Lower Palaeozoic age. 

The Wheal Falmouth lode (presumably the South Wheal 
Falmouth) strikes E. 40° N. and underlies south-east at 20° to 
46°. From the 30 to the 70 fathom level the lode consists of 
chlorite, decomposed slate, and earthy brown iron-ores, copper 
and iron-pyrites; and, at the 50 fathom level, phosphate of iron; 
also blende, purple copper-ore, galena, etc.^ 

The lodes were worked by numerous shafts close to their out- 
crops. The mines were known as WTieal Falmouth, East Wheal 
Falmouth (in the adjacent parish of Kenwyn), Wheal Jane, West 
Wheal Jane, Wheal Sperries, etc. 

Collins^ remarks that Wheal Falmouth is a very ancient mine, 
and that it was worked in connection with Wheal Sperries as 
' Falmouth and Sperries ' ; that a company was registered in 1907 
as the Falmouth Consolidated Mines, Limited, to work properties 
in and near the parish of Kea, including Wheal Jane and others, 
and that extensive surface-works were erected at Wheal Jane and 
in the Carnon Valley, and powerful electrical and other machinery 
installed. In 1864 Wheal Falmouth was 104 fathoms below adit; 
Wheal Jane in 1870 was 180 fathoms deep. 

The outputs of some of these mines between 1848 and 1905 are 
as follow : — 





Gozzan and 


Iron-pyrites 


Ochre and 




Iron Oxide. 


and Sulphur 
Ores. 


Umber. 




tons. 


tons. 


tons. 


Wheal Falmouth and Sperries 


10,474 


47,800 


— 


Wheal Jane 


3,666 


33,340 


100 


North Wheal Jane ... 


.340 


370 


— 


West Wheal Jane 


207 


27,170 


— 



^ ' Geology of Falmouth and Truro and of the Mining District of Camborne 
and Redruth ' {Mem. Geol Surv.,), 1906, p. 228. 

2 'The West of England Mining Region,' 8v6, Plymouth, 1912, p. 478. 



CORNWALL 



79 



25. CONSTANTINE OR BrOGDEN's IrOX MiNE 

Constantine, near Penryn 

(Abandoned) 

Shafts, a mile S.E. of Constantine, 5 miles E. by N. of Helston. 
Station: Helston (G.W.Ii.). 

One-inch New Series Ordnance and Geological Map, 359; Six- 
inch Cornwall 77 N.W. Lat. 50° 6' 34". Long. 5° 9' 4". 

The mine was leased by Messrs. Brogden and Sons in 1868, and 
was working in 1871. ^» 

According to G. Noble, ^ the lode has a bearing of E. 5° S., and 
an underlie of about 17° to the south, the width varying from 
6 in. to 6 ft. Another lode on the south, which at its nearest 
point to the former is about 4 ft. distant, has a bearing of 
E. 25° S., and a width of from 1-| to 6 ft. The country-rock is 
Lower Paleozoic slate. 

The bearings as given by Noble do not tally with the Six-inch 
Geological Map, which shows the lode worked at the mine to run 
E. 2l2° N., while the other lode, to the south of the mine, runs 
E. 15° S., and crosses the first at a point about half a mile W.S.W. 
of the mine. Noble's bearings may be magnetic and not true 
bearings. 

The ore is brown haematite, said to contain 52 per cent, of 
iron. It is somewhat quartzose and is traversed by fissures 
containing clay. 

The output was 2,000 tons in 1873. 

Smaller Mines 

Of the many smaller workings for iron-ore little information 
is available. The following table has been compiled mainly from 
the Gt'ologicnl Survey Memoirs^ and from Collius's ' Observations 
ou the West of England Mining Region '^ : — 

ONE-INCH NEW SERIES MAP, 347 (bODMIN) 



Mine. 


Parish. 


Six-inch Map Oui put in Ions 
in .^m (mainly 


Period. 


Alma 

Bigbeos 
Hatlcii or 

Burncy Hoiisi 
Iron Mine 
St. Stephen ... 


Ijftnivot 

llocho 

St. Austell ... 

St. Stephen-in- 

Brannel... 


? 
? 

41 N.E. 
? 50 N.E. 

? 50 N.W. 


50 
60 

400 
7211 

400 


1872 
1906 

1873 
185r).66 

1873-4 



^ 'Remarks on Mineral Veins in the Parish of Constantine,' 39/A Ann. Rep. 
Roy. Com. Pohj. Soc. for 1871, p. 74 (1872), and Rep. Miners' Assoc. Corn, and 
Devon, 1872, p. 45. 

2 ' Oeology of Rxlmin and St. Aastell ' (Sheet 347) ; ' Goology of Falmouth 
and Truro and of the Mining District of Camborne and Redruth ' (Sheet 352) ; 
' Geology of tlic Land's Entl Di.strict ' (Sheets 351 and 358) ; ' Geology of Pad- 
stow and CauK^lford ' (Sheets 335 and 336). 

3 8vo, Plymouth, 1912. 



80 TJNBEDDED IRON ORES 

ONE-INCH NEW SERIES MAP, 347 (bodmin) — continued. 



Mine. 


Parish. 


Six-inch Map 
{Cornwall). 


Output in tons 

(mainly 

haematite). 


Period. 


Tregawne 

Tregonetha ... 
TreguUan and 

Tretoil 
Tresibble 
Trewhela and 

Benallack .. 


Withiel 

St. Wenn 

Lani vet 

? Luxulian ... 

St. Enoder ... 


33 N.E. 

33 S.W. 

34 S.W. 
? 41 N.E. 

40 S.E. 


1.30 (some 
spathic also) 
1543 

10,040 
1,833 

626 


1859 

187.3-6 

1856-60, 1873-4 
1859 

1859-61 



ONE-INCH NEW SERIES MAP, 352 (fALMOUTH) 



TrelusweU 


St. Gluvias ... 


71 N.W. 


Some magnetite 




Great Wheal 










Busy 


Kenwyn 


57 S. W. 


38 


1848-1905 


Nangiles and 


Kea and 








Wheal Andrew 


Gwennap. 


64 N.W. 


16 


1845-1905 


St. Day United 


Gwennap 


64 N.W. 


38 


1848-1905 



ONE-INCH NEW SERIES MAP, 335 (tREVOSE HEAD) 



Carnewas ...I St. Eval 



32 N.W. 



940 



1871, 1874 



ONE-INCH NEW SERIES MAP, 336 (cAMELFORD) 



Trefresa 

TregeUes 
Trelow 



St. Minver 

St. Kew 

St. Issey 




About 1855 
About 1864 



ONE-INCH NEW 


SERIES MAP, 


346 (newquay) 


Ladock Mines .. 


Ladock 


49 S.E. 


7,600 


1860-5, 1872-5 


Perran Bay ... 


Perranzabuloe 


48 N.W. 


165 


1866 


Perran Mines .. 


Perranzabuloe 


48 N.W. 


4,000 (some 
spathic also) 


1857 


Rose 


Perranzabuloe 


48 N.W. 


1 35 (some 
spathic also) 


1865, 1876 


St. Columb 


St. Columb 


39 N.E., 






Mines 


Minor 


40 N.W. 


386 


1858, 1872 


Speedwell 


Cubert 


? 39 S.W. 


7,467 


1858 



ONE-INCH NEW SERIES MAP, 351 (pENZANCE) 



Binner Downs . 
Castle 

Trebarvah or 
Wheal Castle 



Crowan 
St. Just 

Perranuthnoe 



69 S.E. 
67 S.W. 

75 N.W. 



100 
75 

1,730 



1852-74. 



81 



INDEX 



Abergele District, 21-25. 

Hsematite Co., 25. 

Adams Mine, 55. 
AUeiiheads, 12. 
Aller Mine, 55. 
Alma Mine, 79. 
Alsupmoor Plantation, 2G. 
Alston District, 11-14. 

Prospecting Syndicate, Ltd., 

13. 

Analyses, iron-ores, Cornwall, 00, 61, 
64, 70, 73, 77 ; Devon, 
48, 53 ; Somerset, 30, 34, 
42, 43; Wales, 22; 
Weardale, 5, 6. See also 
Iron. 

, paint-ore, 48. 

Andrew, Wheal, 80. 

Anstie, J., 28, 30. 

Ardale Head, 12, 14. 

Beck, 14. 

Arsenic, 49, 77, 78. 

Aslies House, 10. 

Ashton Hill, 28, 29. 

Vale, 30. 

Furnaces, 30. 

Atlas Tin Mine, 54. 
Attwood, C, 4. 



Baker's Mine, 39. 

Baldhu, 78. 

Ballajora Iron Mine, 27. 

Bampfylde Hill Mines, 44. 

Banwell, 28. 

Barle, River, 41, 42. 

Barnsta])le District, 42-44. 

Barras Nose, 58. 

Barrow Farm Mine, 34, 37, 38. 

Barton's Shaft, 67. 

Barytes, 19, 30, 55. 

Beacon Bateh, 28. 

Bearland W<jucI Mine, 35, 38. 

Bell, 1. L., 5, 7, 11. 

Bros., \Aa\., 11. 

Metal Mining Co., Ltd., 23. 

Bennah Mine, 55. 
Berryman's Shaft, 65. 
Bessemer, H., 59, 62, 66. 

steel, 59. 66. 

Betsey Mine, 38. 

Bigbeos Mine, 79. 

Big Iron Pit, 64. 

Binegar, 28. 

Binntn- Downs Mine, 80. 

Birch Tor Mine, 47, 51, 54. 

Blackhav Mine, 71. 

Blackwoll, Mr., 34. 

Blagdon, 28. 

Blue Gate, 43. 



Bodfari Mine, 15, 19. 

Bodinnick Mine, 58, 60, 7(>. 

Bog House, 11. 

Boringdon Consols, 56. 

Borlase, W., 56. 

Boscarne Mine, 58, 60, 73. 

Baballack, 58. 

Bovey Tracey, 46, 47, 49, 50, 55. 

Bracken Syke Vein, 12. 

Brandon Walls, 11. 

Bratton Fleming Mines, 44. 

Bremley (Brimley) Mine, 44. 

Brendou Hills, 31-40. 

Brimley (Bremley) Mine, 44. 

Bristol District, 28-31. 

Brixham, 46-48, 52. 

Broadfield Down, 28. 

Brockwell, 31. 

Brogden's Mine, 58, 79, 

Brough, 12. 

Bryant, N., 64. 

Bryn-Sion, 19. 

Buckfastleigh, 54. 

Bulkamore Iron Mine, 56. 

Burcomb, 43. 

Burney House Mine, 79. 

Bunow Farm, 37, 38. 

Burtree Pasture Mine, 6. 

Butterley Iron Co., 25. 

Buttons, hsematite used for, 26. 

Byrne, R., 34, 36. 



Caerwys District, 18, 19. 

Calcination of ore, 44, 59. 

California Mine, 38, 40. 

Camden, W., 56. 

Carew Mine, 3-1, 37. 

Cargo Fleet Iron Co., Ltd., 14. 

Carnarvon, Old and New Mines, 37 

Carnt'was Mine, 80. 

(^arricks Mine, 5-8, 

Carr's Vein, 8. 

Cassitfrite, 51. 54, 77, 78. 

Castle of Comfort, 29. 

Castle Mine, 80. 

Challacombe, lode at, 45. 

Chalybite. Scr Spathic ore. 

Charcoal-iron, 34. 

Chargot Wood, 38. 

Chilcompton, 28. 

Child, Mr.. 48. 

Christow, 55. 

Clapton-in-Gordano, 28. 

Cleveland ores, 4. 

Click. Wheal, 69. 

Clifton, 28, 30. 

Cloister Mine, 53. 

Coalpit Heath, 28. 

Cobalt, 15-17. 



82 



INDEX 



' Cockle ' or schorl-rock, 51, 62. 

Colbiggan Mine, 58, 71, 72. 

Cold Knuckles, 8. 

Coldvreath Mine, 58, 60, 69, 70. 

CoUins, J. H., 33, 34, 36-40, 42, 44, 

46, 50, 53, 54, 59-62, 64-67, 69, 

70, 74-80. 
Colton Mine, 34-36. 
Colwyn, 25. 
Combe Martin, 44, 45. 
Comberow, 36. 
Compton Martin, 28. 
Constantine Mine, 58, 79. 
Cook, Dr., 30. 

, R., 49, 52. 

Copper ores, 18, 39, 42, 44, 49, 59, 

62, 63, 66, 69, 77, 78. 
Oornham Ford Mine, 43. 
Cornwall, 46, 56-80. 
Craig Green Vein, 12. 
Craigs Level, 8. 
Crawley Vein, 10. 
Croniliall, 28. 

Cross-courses, 7, 59. -- 

Ci-oss Fell, 12. 
Crowbarn Iron Mine, 44. 
Cubert, 64, 65. 
Cutcombe Barrow Vein, 39. 
Cwm, 15-18. 



Darwen and Mostyn Iron Co., 19, 22, 

23. 
Dawson's Vein, 8, 10. 
Deerpark (Somerset), 42, 43. 

Mine (Coniwall), 57, 67. 

De la Beclie, H. T., 31, 45, 46, 56. 
De Ranee, C. E., 12, 23. 
Devon, North, 31^5. 

-, South, 46-56. 

' Devonshire sand,' 46, 47, 51. 

Dialogite, 33. 

Dick, A., 5. 

Dingle Mine, 21. 

Dinorben, 25. 

Drews Mine, 53. 

Drvnane Mine, 27. 

Duchy Peru Mine, 57, 60-63, 66, 67. 

Dulverton District, 42, 44. 

Dyehouse Mine, 69. 

Dyserth and Cwm Mines, 15-18. 



Exford Iron Ore Co., 41-43. 
Exmoor District, 41-43. 

Mine, 42, 43. 

Exmouth Mine, 55. 



Falmouth Consolidated Mines, Ltd., 
78. 

, Wheal, 58, 78. 

Far Cut, 11. 

— ■ Vein, 8-10. 

Farey, J., 26. 

Faults, Dingle, 21 ; Vale of Clwyd, 

19, 21; in Bristol Coalfield, 28. 

See also Veins. 
Fell- Top Limestone, 11. 
Ferrubron Manufacturing Co., 52. 
Five Acres Mine, 53. 
' Flats,' 7, 9, 10, 21, 23. 
Florence Mine, 44. 
Florey Hill Mine, 38. 
Fluorspar, 6, 10, 69. 
Foster, C. Le Neve, 16, 46, 49. 
Four Fathom Limestone, 6, 10. 
Foxdale, 26. 

Frampton Cbttrell, 28-30. 
Frankmills Mine, 48, 66. 
Frome, 28. 
Fryden Dale, 25, 26. 
Furnaces, 30, 47. 
Furzeham Mine, 53. 



Galloping Bottom, 36. 
Garrigill, 12. 
Gatcham Grange, 26. 
Glebe Mine, 27. 
Gledlom Mine, 18. 
Golden Valley, 28. 
Goosemoor Mine, 34, 39, 40. 
Gothite, 33, 37, 43, 58, 76. 
Gozzan (Gossan), 62, 63, 76, 78. 
Gravel Hill Mine, 57, 63, 64. 
Gravity, specific, of ore, 34. 
Great Limestone, 6-11, 13, 14. 

Perran Lode, 58, 59, 61-67. 

Retallack Mine, 57, 65. 

Rock Mine, 47, 52. 

Wheal Busy Mine, 80. 

Groove Heads Vein, 8, 10. 
Gupworthy Mines, 33, 34, 38-40. 
Gurney Slade, 28. 



Easton-in-Gordano, 28. 

Ebbw Vale Co., 34-37, 39. 

Edith, Wheal, 58, 68. 

Eisen (Eyeson) Hill, 33, 35, 40, 41. 

Eisenpeclierz, 41. 

Eliza, Huel, 42. 

Elton Common, 26. 

Elworthy (Yeanon) Mine, 36. 

Etheridge, R., 28. 

Ettersgill, 11. 

Eyeson (Eisen) HHl, 33, 35, 40, 41. 



Haden Mine, 79. 

Haematite, brown, Alston, 1-3, 11, 
12, 14; CornwaU, 1-3, 
58-60, 62-73. 76-80 ; 
Devon (North), 1-3, 44, 
45; Devon (South), 1-3, 
46-50, 52-56; Somerset, 
1-3, 28, 31, 33, 37, 39, 
41-43; Wales (North), 
25; Weardale, 1^, 9, 
11. 



INDEX 



83 



Hsematiie, red, Alston, 1 ; Bristol 
District, 1-3, 28-30 
Cornwall, 1-3, 58, 60 
62, 63, 65, 68-70, 72-76 
79, 80 ; Derbyshire, 1-3 
25, 26; Devon (North) 
1-3, 31, 44; Devon 
(South), 1-3, 46-48, 53 
Isle of Man, 1-3, 26, 27 
Somerset, 1-3, 31, 33 
34, 37-40, 42, 43 
Wales (North), 1-3, 15 
16, 18, 19, 21, 22, 24 
25 ; Weardale, 1. 

micaceous, specular, or 

shining, Cornwall, 3 
58; Devon (South), 3 
46, 47, 49-52, 54, 55 
Somerset, 42 ; Wales 
(North), 22. 



Iron, metallic, percentage in ores, 
Alston, J 2, 14; Cornwall, 
64-66, 70, 73, 74, 76, 79; 
Devon (North), 44; Devon 
(South), 47, 49, 50, 52-55; 
Somerset, 30, 35, 43; Wales 
(North), 16, 20, 22, 23, 25; 
Weardale, 4-7. See alsu 
Analyses ; Ore. 

-, charcoal, 34. 

glance, 58. 

— ' hat,' 62, 76. 
-t — oxides, 30. 
phosphate, 78. 

pyrites, 49, 51, 59, 62, 67, 78. 

— smelting, 29-31, 34, 36, 44, 47. 
Acton, 28-30. 

Ison Iron Mine, 41. 
Lane 40. 



origin of, 1, 2,-15, 16, 21, 

26, 27, 29, 47, 52. 
Halsgrove ]Mine, 41, 42. 
Halworthy (Yeanon) Mine, 36. 
Hanging Wells, 11. 
Hangley Cleave Mines, 43. 
Hangman Hill, 45. 
Hand Dale, 25. 
Harptree, 28, 30. 
Hartington, 25, 20. 
Hatherley Mine, 54. 
Hathorne's Shaft, 60. 
Hawkmoor Mine, 55. 
Hay tor Mine, 46, 48-50. 
Heasley, 44. 
Heath Hill, 30. 

Hedworth Barium Co., Ltd., 13. 
Heights, 11. 
Helston District, 78. 
Henfi-jii Mine, 18. 
Hennotk, 46, 47, 52, 55. 
Henwcxjd, W. J.. 75. 
Hi-,'hor Blackland Mine, 11, 42. 

— ^ Pits, L>s, 30. 

Hoar Oak Mints, 13. 

Hoecombe (Holecombe) Levels, lU, 41. 

Holstone Farm, 45. 

Honeymi^ad Mine, 42. 

Honeywell, 40. 

Hope Level, 10. 

Horse Edge, 12; Vein, 12, 13. 

Hugu, 78. 



Ilfracombe District, 44, 45. 
Ilmenite sands, 58. 
Ilsington, 46, 49, 50, 54. 
Indian Queen Mine, 58, 67. 

Mining and Colour 

Co., Ltd., 67. 



Ireshopeburn, 8. 



Jaeger Bros., 21, 23. 
James, Wheal, 58, 71, 72. 
Jane, Wheal, 78. 



Kelly Mine, 47, 50-52. 

Kendall, J. D., 6, 7, 11, 77. 

Kennisham Hill Mine, 34, 38-40. 

Keuper Marl, 29. 

Kilhope FeU, 11. 

Killas, 3. 

Killivreath Mine, 69. 

Kingston, J. T., 49. 

' Kippel ' or schorl-rock, 51, 52. 

Knightor Mine, 58, 60, 74. 



Ladock Mines, 80. 

Lamb Bottom, 28. 

Fiandore, 30. 

Lane.scomlx» (Lancecombe) Mine, 31, 

40. 
Langeth (Lanjeth) Mine, 71. 
Laugham Hill Mine, 38, 39. 
Langworthy, 14. 
lianhydrock, 75. 
Lanivet, 71, 72. 
Fianjew Mine, 58, 71. 
r>aiilivery, 75. 
I^arcombe Brook, 40. 
Lark Pasture Plantation, 26. 
Laurence Cross Mine, 37. 
Lead ore. 2, 4, 6, 9, 12, 13, 55, 59, 

62-67, 78. 
Lt ather Barrow Vein, 38. 
Level Gate, 11. 
Lister Bay, 63. 
-— ^— Point, 61, 63. 
Limnnite. See Haematite (brown). 



84 



INDEX 



Little Limestone, 6, 11. 

Little Woolcombe IMine, 42, 43. 

Llwyni Iron Mine, 19. 

Loathbrook Mine, 38. 

Lodes. See Veins. 

Long Ashton, 28. 

Longrigg Mine, 12. 

Lostwithiel, 58, 75. 

Lowe's Vein, 7-9. 

Lubricant, 47. 

Luccombe (Luckham), 31. 

Lustleigh, 46, 47, 50, 55. 

Luxborough, 38. 

Luxulian, 75. 

Lysons, S., 45. 



MacAlister, D. A., 46. 

Madison's Vein, 8, 10. 

Magmatic segregation, 1, 59. 

Magnetic Iron Mine, 69. 

Magnetic sand, 58. 

Magnetic ore or Magnetite, 1, 46, 

48-50, 54, 58, 59, 62, 69, 77. 
Main Joint, The, 16. 
Manaccan, 58. 
Manganese, 14, 17, 18, 21-23, 33, 41, 

50, 68, 72. 
Manganite, 33, 41. 
Manor House Vein, 7, 12. 
Marcasite, 51, 52, 62, 66. 
Margher-e-breck, 27. 
Marian Ffrith, 17. 
Martin, J. S., 47. 
Maryport, 36. 

Maughold Head Mines, 26, 27. 
Meade, R., 4, 11, 44, 47, 48, 53, 54. 
Meesham, 26. 

Melmerby Scar Limestone, 12. 
Mendiji Hills Mines, 29. 
Micaceous ore. See Haematite, 

micaceous. 
Middle Fell, 12. 
Middleton, 11, 12. 
Minehead District, 31. 
Minerals of pneumatolytic origin, 

47, 49-51, 59, 72. 
Mining, Ancient, 36-41 ; Roman, 

16, 30, 34 ; Mediseval, 34, 40. 
Moel Hiraddug Mine, 16, 17. 
Mole, River, 44. 
Molland Mine, 44. 
Monmouthshire, 31. 
Morgans, M., 33-41. 
Mount and TTebisken Mine, 57, 64, 

65. 
Mulberry Mine, 60, 73. 



Nangiles Mine, 80. 
Nanjeth Mine, 71. 
Nanstallon Mine, 58, 73. 
Nant-uchaf Mine, 23. 
Narrow Dale, 26. 
Nenthead, 11, 12. 



Newdowns Mine, 73. 
Newhaven, 25, 26. 
Newland, 42. 
Newquay District, 61-67. 
Newton Abbot, 49. 
Nickel, 15, 16, 17. 
Noad, Dr., 48, 60, 61. 
Noble, G., 79. 
North Heasley, 44. 
North Molton District, 44. 
Nunney, 28, 30. 



Ochre, 30, 50, 67, 68, 78. 

Odling, Dr., 48. 

Office Levels, 41. 

Ore, iron, bedded, 45 ; black, 33 ; 
blue, 22 ; botryoidal, 43 ; 
brown, 33 ; hard, 36 ; 
kidney, 47, 65, 73 ; looking- 
glass, 58 ; needle, 58, 76 ; 
nodular, 45 ; phosphoric, 
13 ; pitchy, 41 ; potty, 33, 
37, 39, 41; puddle, 22; 
rider, 4, 6, 7 ; rocky, 33 ; 
sandy, 34; shining, 51, 
55 ; soft, 36 ; specular, see 
Haematite ; steel, 22 ; 
white, see Si^athic ; wood, 
58. See also Magne- 
tite and Hsematite, 
micaceous. 

calcination of, 44, 59. 

reserves of, 1, 2, 16, 35, 46, 

47, 59, 62, 65, 67. 

smelting of, 29-31, 34, 36, 

44, 47. 

specific gravity of, 34. 

Ousby, 12, 14. 

Output, tables of ; general, 3 ; Alston 
Moor, 12 ; Brendon and Eisen 
Hills, 35; Bristol District, 29; 
Cornwall, 78-80 ; Cwm, 18 ; Devon 
(South), 54-56; Nant-uchaf, 25; 
Teesdale, 11 ; Ty'n-y-caeau, 23 ; 
Weardale, 7, 8. " 

Over Haddon, 26. 



Paint-ore, 1, 29, 30, 47, 54, 68, 74; 

analysis of, 48. 
Pant-gwyn. 19. 
Park Fell, 13. 

Grove Sun Vein, 14. 

Vein, 14. 

— Vein, 12. 

Parkin Mine, 53. 

Pattinson, J., 60. 

Pawton Mine, 58, 60, 61, 70. 

Pelsall, 30. 

Pennycombe Water, 41. 

Penryn, 58, 79. 

Pen-y-coed, 21. 

Percentage of iron in ores, see Iron. 

Percy, J., 5, 34. 



INDEX 



bo 



Perran Bay Mine, 80. 

Lode, The Great, 56, 58, 59, 

01, 62, 65, 06. 

Mines, 80. 

Mining Syndicate, 63-65. 

Perranporth, 63, 65. 
Perranzabuloe, 63-65. 
Petertavy, 54. 

Pettus, John, 56. 
Phillips, J. A., 12. 
Pits Mingle Mine, 58, 69. 
Plumley Mine, 55. 
Poorsland Level, 40, 41. 
Porlock, 31. 
' Posts,' 8. 
Pounce, 47. 
Price, Rees, 61. 
Priddy, 28, 30. 
Prideaux Mine, 75. 
Proctor, E., 22. 
Pixtsper, Wheal, 53. 
Providence, 28. 
Psilomelane, 33, 41. 
Pyrites, arsenical, 49, 77, 78. 

, copper, 18, 49, 59, 62, 63, 

77, 78. 
, iron, 49, 51, 59, 62, 67, 78. 



Quarme, River, 40, 41. 
Quartz in lodes and veins, 33, 35, 37 
43. 



Radstock, 28. 

' Rakes,' 6. 

Raleigh's Cross Inn, 36, 37. 

Mine, 33, 34, 37. 

Rangeworthy, 28. 
Rattery, 56. 

Redding (Reddle), 30, 31. 
Red House Mine, 30. 

Vein, 10. 

Reed Mine, 55. 
Rejerrah, 65, 67. 

Reserves, 1, 2, 16, 35, 46, 47, 59, 62. 

65, 67. 
Rostf:>rrnel Mine, 56, 58-60, 75, 76. 
Retallack Mine, 65. 
Retew, 68. 
Retire and Wheal James Mine, 58, 

71, 72. 
Rigg, 11. 

Riley, E., 42, 43, 77. 
Rispey, 6. 
Roche, 58, 69, 71. 
Rodderup Fell, 12. 
Roebuck's Shaft, 66, 67. 
Roebuck, W. R.. 60, 64, 66. 
Rogers's Lode, 42, 43. 
Roman Lode, 43. 
Mine, 34, 36. 

mining, 16, 30, 34. 

Rookhope, 4. 

Rose J\Iine, SO. 



Rosewarrick Mine, 71, 72. 
Rowantree Mines, 8, 11. 
Ruby Mine, 58, 59, 74. 
Ruddle, 30. 
Ruthers (Ruthvoes) Mine, 68. 



St. Austell, 58, 67, 74. 

Mine, 79. 

St. Breock, 70. 

St. Clether, 58. 

St. Columb Major, 67. 

Mines, 80. 

^t. Day United Mine, 80. 

St. Enoder, 68. 

St. George' s-in-Gordano, 28. 

St. John's Chapel, 8, 10, 11. 

St. Just, 58. 

St. Stephen-in-Brannel, 76. 

St. Stephen Mine, 79. 
. Salcombe Mine, 53. 

Scar Limestone, 7, 11, 12, 14. 

Scottish Silvoid Co., Ltd., 50. 

Shaptor Mine, 55. 

Sharkham Point, 46, 47, 52, 53. 

Mine, 52. 

Shaugh Mine, 56. 

Prior, .56. 

Sheepbridge Iron Co., 25. 
Shirwell Mines, 44. 
Shuttamoor ^line, 55. 
Siambr-wen, 25. 
Siderite, 58. 

Silver, horn, 65 ; native, 64, 65 ; ores, 

62, 66, 67. 
Simonsbath, 42, 43. 
Sir John's Vein, 12. 
Skirwith FeU, 14. 
Slants or Slopes, 35, 36. 
Slit Pasture, 11. 
Smallacombe Mine, 46, 48, 50. 
Smallcombe Bottom Mine, 34, 3S. 
Smelting of ironstone, 29-31, 34, 36, 

44, 47. 
Smith, B.. 21. 

, Mr., 34-36, 37. 

Smokv (Smallcombe) Bottom, 38. 
Smvtii, W. W., 12, 27, 33, 34, 37, 

40-43, 45, 59. 62, 63. 
Snaissjill, 11. 
Somerset, West, 31-45. 
Minerals Syndicate, 34, 

35. 
South Devon Mine, 54. 

United Mine, 54. 

South Exmouth Mine, 55. 

Radworthy, 44. 

Terras Mine, 58, 77. 

Spathic ore (Chalvbite), Alston, 3, 

11, 12; Cornwall, 1-3. 58, 59, 
61-67, 70, 72, 74. 80; Devon 
(North), 1, 2, 81, 44. 45; Devon 
(South), 1-3, 48, 49, 54, 55; Isle 
of Man, 26, 27 ; Somerset, 1-3, 31, 
33. 34, 37-39, 41-43 ; Teesdale. 11 ; 
Weardale, 1-6. 



86 



INDEX 



Specific gravity of ore, 34. 
Specular ore. See Hsematite, mica- 
ceous. 
Speedwell Mine, 80. 
Sperries, Wheal, 58, 78. 
Spiegeleisen, 62. 
Spiller, J., 5. 
Spraycombe Mine, 44. 
Stack [Mooar Mine, 27. 
Stanhojpe, 10. 

Dene, 4. 

Stokes, A. H., 25, 26. 
Stowford Iron Mine, 44. 
Strahan, A.; 15, 21. 
Sunnybrow Mine, 5, 10. 
Sunny Side, 10. 



TamiU, 58. 

Tate, N., 60. 

Teesdale, 11. 

Temple Cloud, 28, 30. 

Tennant's Shaft, 65. 

Tibbets, Mr., 34. 

Timwood, 34, 37. 

Tinstone, 51, 54, 77, 78. 

Tintagel, 58. 

Titanium, 16. 

Toldish, 67, 68. 

Tolgarrick, 77. 

Torbay Mines, 53. 

Tosh, E. G., 60. 

Tower Consols, 58, 69. 

Tow Law, 4. 

Treamble Mine, 57. 60, 61, 65. 

Trebarvah (Wheal Castle) Mine, 80. 

Trebarwith, 58. 

Trebisken Mine, 57, 64, 65. 

Treffi-y Mine, 58, 75. 

Trefresa Mine, 80. 

Tregawne Mine, 80. 

Tregelles Mine, 80. 

Tregonetha Mine, 80. 

Tregullan and Tretoil Mine, 80. 

Treliver Mine, 68. 

Trelow Mine, 80. 

Treluswell, 58, 80. 

Trerank Mine, 69. 

Tresibble Mine, 80. 

Trethursy, 74. 

Treverbyn Mine, 58-60, 74. 

Trewhela and Benallack Mine, 80. 

Tripp Bottom, 36. 

Truro District, 78, 79. 

Trusham, .52. 

' Tuft,' 7. 

Tyddyn-y-cyll, 18. 

Tyne-Bottom Limestone, 6, 11. 

Green, 12. 

Vein, 12. 

Ty'n-llwyn, 21. 
Ty'n-y-caeau Mine, 15, 21. 



Ugborough Mine, 56. 
Umber, 50, 54, 67, 68, 77, 78. 
Union Mine, 77. 
Upton Mine, 63. 
Uranium Mine, 77. 



Vale of Clwyd District, 19. 

Fault, 19, 21. 

Vallance's Shaft, 67. 

Veins and Lodes : Barnstaple 
District, 44 ; Bracken Syke, 12 
Brendon Hills, 33 ; Carr's, 8 
Craig Green, 12 ; Crawley, 10 
Cutcombe Barrow, 39 ; Dawson's 
8, 10 ; Duchy Peru, 66 ; Eisen HiU 
40 ; Exmoor District, 41-43 ; Far 
8-10; Gaverigan, 68; Great, 77 
Great Perran, 56, 58, 61-67 
Groove Heads, 8, 10 ; Horse Edge 
12, 13 ; Ilf racombe District, 44, 45 
Leather Barrow, 38; Lowe's, 7-9 
Madison's, 8, 10; Manor House, 7 
12: North Molton District, 44 
Park, 12; Park Grove, 13; Park 
Grove Sun, 13 ; Pawton, 58 ; Red, 
10 : Kestormel, 75, 76 ; Rogers's, 
42, 43 ; Roman, 43 ; Ruby, 74 ; Sir 
John's, 12; Trebellan, 64; 
Trebisken, 64; Tyne Green, 12; 
Uranium, 77 ; Wilson's, 8. 

Vitifer Mine, 47, 51, 54. 



Wad. See Manganese. 
Wadebridge, 58, 67, 70. 
Walker, A. 0., 15, 21. 
Washford Valley, 34. 
Watchet, 31, 35. 

Briquetting Syndicate, 35. 

Weardale, 7-11. 

^ Steel, Coal and Coke Co., 

Ltd., 5, 8, 10. 
Wear Head, 6, 8, 11. 
Wells (Somerset), 28, 30. 
West Level, 5. 
Weston-super-Mare, 28. 
Westbury, 28. 
West Downs Mine, 72. 
Westmorland, 12. 
West Rigg, 11. 
Somerset Mineral Railway, 35, 

36, 39. 
' White ore.' See Spathic ore. 
Wick, 28, 30. 
Wilkinson, J. D., 23. 
Wilson's Vein, 8. 
Winford, 28-30. 

Haematite Co., 30. 

Iron Ore and Redding Co. , 

Ltd., 30. 
Winsford, 33, 40. 



INDEX 



87 



Winster, 26. 
Withiel, 71. 

Florey, 38. 

Hill Mine, 34, 38. 

Withielgoose, 72. 
Withypool, 41, 42. 
Wolborough Mine, 55. 
Woodhouse, J. T., 60, 64, 73, 77. 
Woodley Mine, 58, 72. 
Woodward, H. B., 28. 
Wookev, 28, 30. 

Woolcombe, Little, Mine, 42, 43. 
Woodlands Level 13. 
Wootton Courtney, 31. 
Worth, R. N., 47. 



Wright, H. J., 25. 
Writing-sand, 46, 47, 51. 
Wylam, 11. 



Yatton, 28, 29. 
Yealmpton Mine, 56. 
Yeanon Mine, 31, 34, 36. 
Ysceifiog, 18, 19. 



JLinc ore, 15, 59, G2, G3, 66, 67, 77, 

78. 



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44 ... 




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47 ... 




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60 NE 




50 8W 




51 NE 




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53 SE 




65 .. 




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67 ... 




68 NW, 


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68 E 




69 ... 




70 ... 




71 NE 




79 NW 




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83 ... 




84 ... 




86 ... 




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95 NW 




104 SE 




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97 SW 




98 NE 




102 SW 




104 SW, 


SE 


107 ... 




108 NE 




108 SW 




108 SE 




110 NW 




110 NE 




110 SW 




110 SE 





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